Home Improvement Tips – Ideas for Changing the Flooring

So you’re thinking about changing that ugly old carpet or vinyl floor with something fresh and beautiful and you want to use tile instead. You have looked at a lot of pictures in home design magazines; you have an idea of the cost, and the retailer with the best selection but know where to start.

Well it sound like you already have a great start, you found some design ideas from magazines, you know where to purchase the materials, and you have a rough idea of the cost, and you have decided to do this yourself, outstanding! The tips I’m about to give you come from my experience as a professional tile setter in Phoenix Arizona.

The first thing you want to think about is what kind of surface are you going to lay that beautiful tile on, wood or concrete. I have found that the preparation of the surface will determine how your tile will look after it’s installed and how long it will last in the home, and let’s face it you don’t want to redo this next year. Follow these basic steps first before you lay your first tile

Is the surface level

Look for flaws like dips and bumps make sure the surface is smooth

If working with a wood surface make sure it’s secure no nails sticking up and it’s tight to the substructure

When working with concrete look for cracks, you don’t want the surface to crack more after you install the tile

Make sure the surface is clean before installation

These starter tips will save you time and frustration and make the experience more enjoyable for you. Next you want to make sure you measure the area you’re going to lay. You don’t want a 6″ cut on one wall and a 3″ cut on the other that would look really bad especially in a entry way. The first thing you need to make sure of is the room you are working with square? Trust me when I say this you don’t know how many times I went into a new home and found that one end of the room measured 12′ and the other end was 12′ 2″ Because of poor framing. This is ok if you’re working with larger tile but can be a real problem if it’s smaller tile like in a bathroom. Here are some tips on laying your floor out before starting the installation.

Buy some tile spacers. They look like small rubber crosses, they will determine your grout line width and give you an idea of your wall cuts, and in most cases will measure ¼ in, between tiles.

Don’t be afraid to lay the tile out in both directions using the tile spacers to get an idea what it’s going to look like.

After determining if your room is square set an installation chalk line in both directions, this will help keep the installation straight.

There are different types of adhesives for laying your tile I use thin set mortar for concrete, and you can use what is called cement board, this can be laid over any wood surface and will eliminate the use of the mastic clue. The reason for this is when wood is affected by temperature it will expand and contract, and the mastic clue will allow it to change with this effect, this is not a concern with cement board, Mastic is pre mixed, and thin set mortar will need to be mixed before you can use it. When mixing your thin set mortar it’s like mixing concrete it comes in a bag and you need to add water, be careful not to get it to thin, it needs to be thick enough to use with a trowel. I used a wheel barrel to mix it in and then transferred it to a 5 gal bucket, this made it easier to handle. Also remember that when installing the tile to make sure not to leave any air bubbles trapped under the tile. This will cause the tile to brake. The method I use is to set the tile by pushing down evenly on the tile until I see the adhesive start to come out from the edges and then I lightly tap on the top of the tile a listen for any hollow sound, this will tell you if there is a pocket of air trapped and if you need to push a little more.

Gold Rings for Men – A Popular Accessory

We usually don’t associate any kind of jewelry with men. When we think about jewelry we always think about the female gender and how they love to adorn themselves with ornaments. However, we have seen that as of lately men have started showing an interest in rings, especially in gold rings. Previously, they used to wear only gold rings on their engagements or on their weddings. But now, gold rings are worn to many formal and informal occasions and it has become more of a fashion statement, not merely an obligation or sign of marriage. Gold rings, due to the rising gold prices worldwide, are usually worn by the upper class, rich people in society. These people can afford to wear gold rings for almost every occasion. But if we look at the average man, a man owns at least one ring for himself.

Even though gold is such an expensive metal, it truly hasn’t been replaced by any other metal. There are a lot of reasons behind this, cultural being the main one. In this article we will be taking a look at the different kinds of gold rings for men in terms of design and we will also be emphasizing on how the variety of rings for men keeps increasing every day. Gold is a very popular choice for men’s rings. However, there is not just one kind of gold that is used in making rings for men. Although yellow gold seems to be used more often, there is white gold and rose gold, which is sometimes used in making rings for men. White gold is more commonly known as platinum and it is much more expensive in terms of price. It gives off a very white look, something that is similar to the shine of extremely well polished silver. Rose gold, on the other hand, has a slightly pinkish color to it (not too much) we don’t see many rings made out of rose gold, but it is used in several rings.

Gold rings, or perhaps any kind of gold jewelry, are not made out of 100% gold. It is almost always mixed with another metal, to make it stronger. We often hear the term carats when we’re shopping for gold jewelry and these carats tell us about how pure the ring is i.e. how pure it is. Usually, the higher the carats, the more gold the ring contains. For everyday use and to keep the affordability factor in mind, 10 to 14 carat rings are suitable for men. There are some rings which are gold-plated but we don’t recommend you to buy those, even if they are cheaper, because once the plating comes off, the metal is not as glossy as it was before.

There are many designs available in the gold rings. There are plain designs like the simple band and there are more complicated designs available in stores. Popularly, gold rings men have plain deigns like the simple wedding band, but now some gold rings have carvings and other designs engraved in them too. The use of stones in the rings is also popular, with different kinds of stones; precious and semi- precious, are used on the rings. There are some rings that have a ribbed design on them. You can either buy ready-made gold rings from stores or over the internet, but if you’re looking for something unique, you can have rings specifically made for yourself in your size and chosen design as well.

Is the New Fashion Trend Right for Your Business?

Is your style the right one for you or are you trying to copy the magazine or a celebrity? A lot of women today have this dilemma because we live in a world where fashion style dictates who you are in the society. The world is changing so fast and the fashion trends are also adjusting every now and then. With a variety of fashionable items to choose from, creating your own personal style is not an easy task to do. You also need to take into consideration the kind of personality you want your viewers to convey about your fashion statement. Dressing your own style of fashion is not only to blend in the crowd but also to express more of yourself and be confident of your personality. Your own personal fashion style is your own personal brand of your own interests, aspirations, desires and lifestyle.

The following are some tips to consider when creating your own fashion statement:

  • Before trying something, try to scrutinize various fashion trends from different sources like magazines, television, advertising materials and the internet. You must know how to gather data to be able to investigate what you really want in your fashion style. You need to know how these trends are being collected so that you will have a better idea about the basics of fashion. From these concepts, you can mix and match and can create a clearer picture of your personal style.
  • Do not try to copy fashion statements of celebrities or friends because their own trend may not be the perfect style for you. Only buy items that best represent you as a person. Focus more on the clothing you wear and feel good about being yourself.
  • Venture on different styles. You can try different dresses and experiment on your own closet. Walking in front of a mirror or taking a picture of yourself can help you. By doing this, you will know what are the styles you want to keep or change. You need to remember that loving the items you wear boosts your self esteem.
  • There are several accessories you need to consider. Try to find the perfect accessory that will complement your outfit. Don’t go for accessory items just because they are a popular trend in your society. You need to realize that accessories are also important in creating your own personal brand.
  • The right hairstyle and make up is also a must in making your own style. Try to consider the shape of your face in selecting the perfect hairstyle. Be conscious about the right blend of make up for the right occasion.

Organizing your fashion statement involves risk. Don’t be afraid to take that risk. Inspire yourself with personalities you admire in the fashion world. Through this, you will be able to discover the true and unique person that’s within you.

The Future Is Now – Green Construction

Energy costs are skyrocketing and climate change is a legitimate threat. With traditional energy resources depleting at an alarming rate, it is imperative that we begin utilizing green concepts into our construction technology and building maintenance. It should be our goal as a responsible society to become energy independent and self-sufficient as soon as possible.

Taking measures to increase energy efficiency should not be thought of as a future endeavor. The time to begin modernizing our office buildings and commercial facilities is now. Building designers and architects have come up with amazing ways to support green development and healthy lifestyles from within small towns to expansive cities. Builders and planners are now on board with constructing facilities that meet or exceed LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. With new green technology being developed every day, new energy efficient and LEED certified buildings are going up at a monumental rate.

Wind and solar power are just two ways that a new green building can be energy independent. Clean solar or wind energy can power entire city blocks, not just the building where the instruments are installed. It is easy to see how a large commercial building has an impact on the surrounding community. By installing solar panels or wind turbines, a modern skyscraper can be a positive force for change to the entire city. When one giant leads by example and demonstrates how beneficial – economically and environmentally – operating a green facility is, it won’t be long before the entire city follows suit.

Obviously, not all buildings are new construction, and no one will tear down a perfectly good building in order to build a more efficient one with new green technology. But there are some steps that can be taken that will make even the oldest commercial building operate more energy efficiently.

Taking measures to decrease water waste is just one way a building can save money and have a positive impact on the environment. Installing tank-less hot water heaters and water-regulating faucets and toilets will have a significant impact on the overall amount of money saved in utility bills. Other steps a building maintenance department can take are making sure the HVAC system is operating correctly and replacing all incandescent light bulbs with energy efficient fluorescent ones. Cleaning and maintaining a building’s HVAC system will keep it operating at optimum efficiency, ensuring clean airflow and ventilation, while swapping out traditional light bulbs for fluorescent ones will drastically reduce electric bills and electricity consumption.

By incorporating green standards and green construction techniques into our commercial buildings, we will all enjoy the benefits of lower utility bills and clean, renewable energy. By reducing carbon emissions and water waste, we are creating an environment that the entire global community can enjoy for many years to come.

Industrial Vs Non Industrial Plasma Cutting Machines

Industrial vs Non-industrial Plasma machines

Plasma cutting technology is a widely used process that has gained widespread popularity for its ability to cut most forms of metal and is quite favored for its simplicity in use. It’s versatility with its range of capabilities and applications have made it a universally accepted metal cutting process.

Non-industrial Plasma

Non industrial plasmas are best suited for garage users of steel fabrication who require plasma cutting perhaps 2-3 hours per day 3-4 days per week. A plasma in this class is best suited to small operations that work on mostly customised jobs. Non industrial plasma units are much cheaper to purchase than industrial plasmas but cannot tolerate the ongoing high volume that an industrial Plasma is designed for. Air plasmas and lower end conventional mechanised plasmas generally fall into the category of non-industrial plasmas.

Industrial Plasma

Industrial plasmas refer to plasma units geared towards high volume large production facilities that have enough work to elicit a machine to operate a full eight hour shift five days per week. Plasmas in this class usually can operate up to three eight hour shifts per day, seven days per week if necessary. If your operation fits into this category then an industrial plasma is not only preferable, but an absolute necessity.

Higher end Conventional plasma and High Definition Plasmas fall into the category of industrial plasmas. With modern day advances however High definition is generally the plasma of choice due to the higher levels of automation they provide as well as the higher level of cutting proficiency they are capable of achieving.

Advantages of Industrial Plasma (high definition plasma)

• Lower operating Costs

• Oxygen and multi-gas capability for improved

• Faster Cut speeds

• Improved weldability

• Significantly longer consumable life

• Thicker cutting capability

• Quick disconnect torch

• 100% duty cycle

• Hi-Definition technology

• Best cut quality including squarer edges and rounder holes

• Mark, cut and bevel with the same consumables

• More process options for optimizing cut quality

• Remote (CNC) gas switching capability

• Patent TruHole technology for best plasma cut holes – unique to Hypertherm high definition plasmas

• Hdi thin stainless technology

• Optimal gas mixing for mid-range stainless steel

• Higher pierce capability

• Much higher automation

• Higher resale value

• Much longer life on machine

• Significantly higher production capability

• Significantly higher computer aided design capability

Essential components of an Industrial plasma cutting machine

What is most essential to a plasma machines ability to provide continuous quality cutting are the ‘Controllers’ of a plasma unit. A well-engineered, well-constructed control unit is essential to providing consistent high level cutting precision and quality, carried out at high speeds over long hours. A poor to average control unit is incapable of achieving consistent precision especially over long production intervals where it is likely to overheat or break down.

Controllers consist of five main components: Power source, controller, a lifter, drives and servo motors.

Power Source

It is very important to get a renown plasma source for your machine to achieve a high performance and reliability to deliver consistent cut quality, high productivity, lowest operating costs whilst lasting you a long time for your business.

Lifter

The lifter is an essential component providing precise height control of the plasma torch. Utilizing a quality THC height sensor will reduce the cut to cut cycle time (up to 60%), provides better cut quality due to proper assembly of torch height, savings on power and longer consumable life.

In addition the quality torch height controllers automatically adjusts voltage for proper torch height to optimize cut quality and consumable life. Traditional torch height controls require an operator to periodically adjust arc voltage to ensure proper cut height.

Control

The controller needs to have all the process expertise built in resulting in flexibility and ease of use for the end user. A quality controller has a digital I/O sercos system that will deliver reliable motion system quality and will improve the cut quality and productivity.

The software should allow flexibility and ease of use for the end user, so a person with little or no experience on the controller can cut like a seasoned professional in as little as a day.

High End Servo Drives and motors

High end drives like Bosch help ensure high stiffness essential for accuracy, minimal backlash and easy adjustment. The servo drives receive command signals that amplify and transmit electric current to the servo motor in order to produce motion proportional to command signals.

Their main advantage over DC and AC motors used in non-industrial plasmas is the addition of motor feedback which can be used to detect unwanted motion or to ensure the accuracy of a command motion. Servos in constant speed changing use typically have a better lifecycle than DC/AC motors and can also act as a brake by shutting off generated electricity from the motor itself.

Bosch Servo motors

Bosch servo motors allow for precise control of angular position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a sophisticated motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback.

Stepper motors typically used in low end CNC machines provide no feedback encoder as drive signal specifies the number of steps of movement to rotate. This lack of feedback limits performance as the stepper motor can only drive a load that is well within its capacity otherwise missed steps under load may lead to positioning errors.

Low rails

Industrial plasma’s usually feature low rails secured to the ground to ensure the highest level of stability driven by helical drives to provide optimal accuracy during the rapid fast moving of the plasma beam during long production intervals.

Table design rails usually seen on non-industrial plasmas won’t have the same level of rigidity and are thus less suited to high volume rapid pace production. In addition with rails built onto the cutting table and so close to the plasma, with constant long duration cutting the rails are at risk of distorting in shape (over time) due to the constant exposure to heat.

CAD / CAM software

To greatly improve the efficiency of production in a high volume settings you require a more advanced software to provide a much wider range of functions which greatly enhance the productivity of that operation. Using a more advanced software unit can provide some of the following advantages just a to name a few:

• Import CAD and CNC files

• Separate multiple parts from a single CNC file

• Group Parts into clusters for nesting

• Automatic and manual nest sequencing

• Control cut directions and cut sequencing on part by part basis

The addition of a quality software allows a much higher level of automation, significantly reducing key punching and is user friendly enough to allow even the most novice operator to cut parts like a seasoned professional.

Cutting table

For the purposes of industrial fabrication it is essential that a cutting table is well constructed, heavy and durable to meet the demands of an industrial operation. In most non-industrial plasma units, cutting tables are constructed from thin sheet metal and alluminium castings to reduce the cost of the overall unit. The problem with this is that due to the thin, light construction, the table can shake or wobble, adversely affecting the accuracy of a cut part. Furthermore over long production periods, due to the ongoing exposure of heat generated from the plasma these tables are likely to distort over time.

The durable robust construction of an industrial plasma table is essential to give the table stability for the highest level of accuracy and to prevent heat distortion.

Industrial plasma units usually offer the choice of a water or dry table with a dust collection unit. Water tables are cheaper to purchase but require much more ongoing maintenance and cleaning which over time becomes more expensive than using a dry table with a fume extraction unit. In an industrial environment both are acceptable.

Non-industrial plasmas usually come with water tables once again to reduce overall the cost of the unit though some are offered with a dry table and fan which is only sufficient in removal of dust and fumes in a light fabrication setting.

Having a Support team

The purchase of a Plasma machine whilst being an expensive investment can provide enormous returns to any business where there is a demand for work, the correct facilities are utilized and they are maintained with the right level of care.

It is essential therefore that a full support team is available to service your machine for ongoing maintenance, in the incident of a breakdown or where any other form of technical support is required.

In any high volume industrial environment any down time can translate into large losses in profit so it is important to have a local service team, but more to the point a team who knows the full operation of the machine from bolt to bolt, to shorten the time required to fix the machine, though also to provide phone support for quick fixes that do not cost any call out fees.

Why Non-Industrial Plasmas are so much cheaper to purchase than Industrial Plasmas

Many first time buyers of Plasma machines may look into purchasing a non-industrial plasma as a form of entry level use not fully understanding the full capabilities or limitations they have especially when compared to industrial level plasmas.

A cheaper price tag is often the motivator to go with a non-industrial plasma but in the long run once users have been able to thoroughly compare the two in performance, reliability and productivity it becomes very clear why non-industrial plasmas are so much cheaper.

In most situations fabricators who start out using non-industrial plasmas find with ongoing use that their functional capacity is very limited and with further research and exposure to industrial plasmas that they eventually upgrade to one as they provide much greater productivity, more flexibility in use and better quality cut parts with consistent precision. In addition industrial plasmas have a much greater lifespan, are a lot more durable and are built to handle a much higher degree of volume equating to far better value.

Many manufacturers of non-industrial plasma machines try to capitalize on the lower end cheap market by providing only the bare essentials of plasma cutting. Many of the reasons they can offer a plasma machine at a cheaper price is due to reasons including:

– Often software is not included in the package and in many cases users need to integrate a separate laptop/PC to operate the CNC cutting function. Even when software is provided usually they only provide very basic functions.

-Table and beam are constructed of thin light constructed sheet metal, not suited to heavy duty fabrication and are highly likely to distort in shape over time, due to ongoing heat exposure generated from the plasma. Rails are also built onto the table rather than being bolted into the ground.

This type of design does not provide the stability required to support quality precision during fast rapid movement due to the lack of rigidity and lightness of the table construction.

-Use of DC/AC motors and stepper motors as alternatives to drives and servo motors translate to limited performance, slower cutting, inconsistent poorer precision and positioning, slower acceleration and velocity.

-Fume extraction units are not included and another way to reduce the price on non-industrial units. A water table or dry table with fan are usually what are provided, though with light fabrication this is usually sufficient.

-Cheaper components are normally incorporated that don’t have any real brand reputation for performance or reliability.

-Aside from the above non-industrial plasmas can generally operate perhaps 2-3 hours per day 4-5 days per week and have an average lifespan of about 3-5 years.

Conclusion

For those considering the purchase of a plasma unit it is very important to be clear on the capability of the unit and whether or not that unit can meet all their requirements not just that of a single part.

Plasma machines have been designed to provide varying levels of functionality with a price range to match. Industrial plasma machines are logically more expensive but when the components are thoroughly broken down, one can clearly see that the cost is commensurate with the performance and capability, and in retrospect this is also true of non-industrial plasma machines. When matched in the suitable environment, business owners often see a return on investment within 2-3 years and as smaller businesses grow, industrial plasmas become a very natural progression.

Experimental Home Furniture

Experimenting with home furniture

It is a courageous person that plays with the effective but somehow dubious furniture accessories such as the plastic lawn ornaments. The first advantage of these things is that they are very practical especially if you have young children to look after. It is expected that these kids will be boisterous and will play with the accessories on a regular basis. The risk of damage is very high and you have to ensure that you are prepared to go for that risk. In doing the work that is expected with the different furniture items that are meant to make the home stylish as well as comfortable for the residents, you will be getting something that can deal with the characters of your young children.

The cleaning process is fairly simple for the different products that you buy for your home in an effort to put it on top of the fashion stakes. You just need cloth and a bit of water. The rest is relatively simple and you can enjoy a relaxed atmosphere for a significant period of time. The downside to this sort of thing is the fact that you are expected to really work at getting the process to work for you. In due course you will find that the furniture is ultimately advantageous. The use of the latest furniture items that bring class or elegance to your domestic dwellings is to be admired. Some people are worried about the stylistic statement that such accessories make on the owner. To me that is just superficiality on a grand scale.

You have to know the practical benefits of the essential items of furniture that have to be selected from the most stylish shops in town or within the market. As a head of a family of children it is not within your range to get something that is delicate and classic. The children will run it down within a matter of minutes. You are really looking for furniture that is practical. It has to do the basic functions and yet not be too ugly for polite society. This balance is well achieved by the modern furniture items that try to combine efficiency and elegance with a touch of old world values into the home. On the one hand they are decorative in their appearance but on the other hand it is relatively easy to look after them.

The home will be better off with the dramatic furniture sets that inspire confidence in the client when they place them within the home setting. They might not be the branded products that the affluent neighbors have but they will do the job very well. In fact you might find that they are the right solution for the clients. You will need to chase up the benefits of the standard and exotic furniture items that bring a classical dimension to the general home setting. This means that you look after the furniture and do not do anything that is likely to damage the credibility of the home as a whole. I would not expect to find them in a historical palace. These are items for the mass market and they should remain that way for the foreseeable future.

Impact of Fashion Styles

When shopping for fashion clothes and accessories you have lot of choices to select; as many budding designers and small online fashion labels are competing with each other to put forward a great alternative in the market. Along with the advent of internet you can gain a little help from both online and offline fashion stores which offer originality, quality and flexibility as they are willing to provide you just the thing you want and as you wish. By doing an internet search or by visiting small fashion labels, will offer you a variety of huge choices and you can be aware of what is fashionable right now. There is a new take on almost each and every fashion trend among lot of companies which are at the fore front of new designs. In the modern competitive market trend there are extensive range of clothing materials and accessories which are having unique looks and styles, and are supplied by many fashion businesses.

Just think, can fashion be considered as an aspect which is connected with glamour or glitz? Is it worth to spend thousands in order to acquire the latest clothes and accessories? Whether it is the jeans, sweaters, pants, shirts, coats, jackets, suits, leather or fur which attracts the people with impressive images of fashion items regularly that are shown in television channels and in various fashion magazines. Whatever be the reason, this fashion craze will results in emotional illnesses like depression, low self esteem and many psychological and physical effects.

It is commonly believed that individuals are themselves are responsible for their own actions. On the other hand you should not underestimate the effect of the changing images in the fashion industry. In short our eyes are subjected to have a feast everyday due to the constantly changing fashion trends. It expresses the way a person looks, thinks and acts. So we have to move forward with these trends and probably if we are reluctant to accept this sequence then we will be termed as an old-fashioned dunce that lacks in taste. The effect of this is to bring the viewer’s mind under control and to make them to accept such unrealistic role without questioning them.

It had been made clear that fashion is not the reflection of a consumer’s real taste. It actually makes the people to deprive off the power and as a result they are not able to express it in honest manner. The consumers are compelled in an indirect way to decide what and when to buy, what all things and accessories to carry and the like. Thus these fashion styles had put us into a situation which make us helpless and leaves us at their mercy without representing reality. It summons up visual images of expensive and fashionable clothes and accessories are only for rich and famous people as they can only afford. The image sometimes includes clothes which paint women in a manner which gives us an emotional injury which not only hurts, but also affect the women’s mobility factor.

How to Look For Exquisite Home Furniture for a Fraction of the Price Using eBay

Every homeowner wants to get hold of exceptional furniture but few can actually afford the price tag. Thus, a majority resort to less expensive pieces but often end up sacrificing a lot in terms of overall quality of the home’s interior. Hence, it is common that people go to yard sales or other bargain sites which will allow them to get exquisite home furniture for just a fraction of the cost. The most common place for this is eBay.

However, as eBay is a configuration of a countless number of people, loosely regulated by a central administration, it is wise to take a couple of precautionary measures before transacting. Although there are safeguards which are placed to protect every buyer, it is still advisable to avoid being in such a position. After all, no one wishes to undergo through all the trouble of paperwork and investigations.

As much as possible, choose a payment process that supports some sort of payment protection. Companies like PayPal extend this to their customers. They enable returns on grounds of a breach in the terms of the contract. Furthermore, they also conceal as much of your personal information as possible, thereby lessening the risk of identity theft and credit card fraud cases, both of which are a pain to handle.

Before buying anything on eBay, check the background of the seller. If it shows that he or she fulfills his or her commitments on time and within the terms of his agreement, then it is a good sign. Some sellers who offer very tempting pieces may end up as shams which will only cause you so much disappointment with the kind of stuff that you will receive. Additionally, they may also run away with your money in the process. This is a very important step especially when you will not be using “protective” payment methods, as this measure will immensely reduce the risk of getting less than what you expected.

eBay gives more financial freedom to every customer, especially for those in very tight budgets. However, just like anything else in real life, it is best to proceed with the necessary precautions lest suffer the inconvenient consequences.

Transportation Services and Modes of Transport

In human evolution, the earliest means of transport were walking, running and swimming. Before the Industrial Revolution and modernization, water transport was the most efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods over long distances though it was very slow and expensive. The importance of water transport led to the growth of cities along rivers and sea-shores where boats, canoes and ships could dock.

The domestication of animals and the invention of the sled gave way to early animal transport services. Horses and oxen were used from as early as 3000 BC to transport goods and humans and traveled over dirt tracks. Later civilizations such as the Mesopotamian and the Indus Valley built paved roads for easier transport.

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century turned transportation on its head. It was the age of many inventions that fundamentally changed the concept of transport. Communication, telegraphy, the steam engine and the steam ship sped global transport in all directions. Land transport became possible over large distances without the application of animal or human muscles. The Wright brothers’ successful experiments with aircraft paved the way for airplanes and air transport became a faster way to transport goods and people in shorter time-frames to further destinations.

Modes of transport

A ‘mode of transport’ is a method or solution that uses a particular type of infrastructure, operation and vehicle to transport people and cargo. A mode can be used by itself or in conjunction with several other modes; in this case it is referred to ‘intermodal’ or ‘multimodal’ transport. Each is distinct from the other and is used based on choice of factors like cost of transport, route taken, capability and so on.

1. Human-powered – this is the most common in developing and under-developed countries because of several factors like savings on cost, accessibility of location, physical exercise and environmental reasons. Human-powered transport is a sustainable form of transport and has recently been enhanced by the use of machinery and modern technology – e.g. cycling, skating, rowing, skiing which are extremely useful in difficult environments.

2. Animal-powered – whether ridden by humans or used as pack animals for movement of people and commodities, animals can work alone or in teams – e.g. mules, horse-carts, dog-sleds etc.

3. Air – airplanes and aircraft have reduced travel times considerably and is the fastest mode of passenger and goods transport. High costs and high energy use are the downsides of air transport; however, it is estimated that over 500,000 people travel in aero-planes at any given time.

4. Rail – Railroads and rail tracks run the length and breadth of every country in the world ferrying people and goods from place to place. Although they involve the use of large amounts of surface land, rail networks provide easy connectivity options within cities, within countries and between different countries as a mode of public transport- e.g. New York City Subway, London Metro, Eurotunnel or the Chunnel between England and France and the Euro Rail.

5. Road – road networks pass through cities, towns and villages and provide better connectivity options in addition to city rail networks and are ideal for public transport also. Road transport is entirely different from other modes as it allows a vehicle user to have complete freedom over speed, direction, timings of travel and change of location that other transport methods cannot provide. They require large surface areas, use high energy and are quite expensive.

6. Water – water transport includes barges, boats, sailboats and ships through canals, rivers and seas. The earliest boats and ships were routed through inland canals for transporting people and spices. Today large passenger and cargo ships provide an organized and efficient transportation method. Although the time involved is long, water transportation is significantly less expensive than air or road.

Other less used modes include cable and pipeline transports which are specifically purpose oriented – e.g. liquids and gases, water, sewage etc. for pipeline transport and conveyor belts, aerial tramways, cable cars etc. for cable transport.

All transport services involve three common elements – infrastructure such as terminals and facilities, operations that include government and private agencies and vehicles which are specifically made for the purpose.

Mens Fashion Tips: The Art of Creating Permanent Fashion Styles for Men

Many men and women do not have much idea about Mens Fashion. Very often the advice I have been approached on are what men can wear to appear professional or what men should wear so that they do not look outdated but overtly trendy.

I would greatly suggest understanding the basics of men’s fashion and put this knowledge into a permanent mens fashion style. There would not be anymore worry about following trends but perpetually looking stylish.

The basics of fashion for men boil down to knowing what each piece of apparel is made up of. The fabrics used determine a lot on the quality of the apparel. Good fabrics allow the apparel to withstand wear and tear.

If any men’s clothing or accessories that wear out fast would naturally make it look old and badly cared. This does not reflect well of the men wearing it and easily put most men out of style just by looking shaggy.

The next important point we need to note are the details found in every apparel and accessories. Details can be subtle but it creates a very big impact in the eventual outlook of the styling.

So before we start playing with details, the knowledge of each detail’s responsibility and how it helps in holding up the item or even gives significance to it in style can assist us in choosing the best men’s clothing.

Learning how to coordinate is another tough thing for many men. It does not need to be if they just understand about the various concepts of coordination. Starting from differentiating the type skin complexion they belong to would be the most basic knowledge to acquire.

Then they just need to put on the right color clothing against their complexion that perks up their facial skin tone and brings the attention to their face.

After that, coordinating colors between the various men’s clothing is another method. There are various ways to match different and similar or same hues as well as the shades of hues to achieve the nicest blend of colors.

If they are adventurous, then there are more that they can create that puts two very contrasting colors and yet a harmonious fusion of such colors without looking weird or clownish.

Putting patterns against each other is another challenging task in mens fashion. It is through the play of patterns that can make many men look very trendy and stylish.

If not properly done, those clashing patterns would be a very trying and poorly executed attempt. It boils down in knowing the types of patterns and their scale before choosing how to put them together.

Men can go for two to four similar or different patterns coordination without even looking overdoing the matching. It is fundamental to keep the flow of patterns as natural as possible and create a relaxing look from the combination.

It is good to have an idea of how to put all these mens clothing and accessories together. From there we can develop a permanent styling and never have to worry about the next trend or whether it is unprofessional. At least all aspects of men’s fashion have been touched on. Therefore, if you are daring enough it is always possible to transform it into fashionable styling.