Health Insurance Money Saving Strategies – How Combining Health Insurance Saves Money

How does anyone get the best value with health insurance? Answer: Combine Health Insurance Plans. To explore the principles at work, many people should understand how combining health insurance is a sound solution to a serious problem. It may appear obvious that combining insurance improves coverage, but few people truly understand how combining plans leads to thousands of dollars in potential savings over time. With so many health insurance plans available and over 1 million insurance agents actively licensed today, it leads one to question why no one knows how combining plans saves money.

Today, too many people are learning the hard way that they are under-insured when it comes to health insurance. This happens because competitive health insurance agents bid lower and lower amounts in an inflated market, leading to more gaps in coverage that less experienced agents often fail to comprehend well enough to explain. There is a simple truth to understand about the rising costs of health care.

Health Care Costs Will Continue to Rise When No Regulation is in Place

Hospitalvictims.org conducted research on hospital charges nationwide. These charges were compared to those of Johns Hopkins Hospitals, one of the most respected health care institutions in the nation. What were the results?

The vast majority of hospital charges average between 300% and 400% above the institutions’ costs for treatment. Johns Hopkins Hospital’s average charges are 117% above its costs. For every $1 charged, Johns Hopkins pays $0.85, or earns a profit of $0.25 for every dollar charged.

The average U.S. hospital pays $0.27 for every dollar it charges. The average hospital is paying $25 Million in costs while charging $95 Million to patients. The average profit margin is around $70 Million annually. The greatest of these charges are credited to surgical supplies and the administration of anesthesia.

In an ever-inflating health care industry, a solution does exist. While politicians continue making promises to solve the health care crisis, individuals and families continue to expect more than the insurance market can bear. But many self-employed individuals and families can find comfort in knowing they can do something to secure assets by simply doing the legwork and becoming informed about health insurance.

The solution is based on a very simple principle of insurance. Insurance is an Agreement to Share the Financial Risk of Loss Between Individuals and Companies

This basic concept is more important for individuals to understand now than ever. Health insurance companies, like individuals, cannot afford the rising costs of health care on their own today. Many health insurance companies have developed their focus to specific areas where they can offer more competitive coverage at very affordable prices. This is where people can save significant amounts of money by adjusting to this trend. It is no longer the case that a single health plan can offer full, comprehensive coverage at a competitive price because health care costs are out of control.

Today it takes multiple health plans from multiple health insurance companies to have the best coverage at the lowest price. This follows the trends associated with investing in the economy. One creates greater risk for their financial performance in the market by investing all funds in one stock or trade. The safest, most secure investment is a diversified portfolio. Health insurance is no different today.

Why You Do Not Know

Is it surprising to learn that many insurance professionals have no idea how to give individuals and families the best coverage and the greatest savings on health insurance? The majority of health insurance agents today are captive to one company. This means that most insurance agents are only trained to present the products of the health insurance company they represent.

Independent agents are less restricted to one plan, but a large number of these professionals still have limited access to the competitive plans available to individuals and families. While this explanation is complicated, the simple answer is that most agencies earn the majority of their profits from the volume of product sales per company, not the volume of sales overall. Some general agency contracts offer higher incentives to the agency, which can influence what products agencies offer.

So, it comes down to the individual shopping for health insurance to find the policies that create the greatest coverage and savings.

A Well-Structured Health Insurance Portfolio is the Key to Having the Best Coverage for the Lowest Price

Combining health insurance plans is the best way to improve coverage save money on health insurance long term. Health Insurance Money Saving Strategies is a 10-week campaign to spread the word to self-employed individuals and their families looking for private health insurance. A well-structured Health Insurance Portfolio is the best way for people to protect their assets and be comfortable knowing their insurance adequately protects them from the worst medical situations. The benefit is knowing that this type of approach to health insurance saves people money.

Share Videos On Twitter

Everyone loves to share videos online whether they recorded them on their own or found them on the web. Twitter users especially love to do their sharing via mobile phone. Anyone can easily share videos on Twitter with the help of some great tools that work from their computers or mobile phones.

Without the help of Twitter apps, you can tweet the URL to a video, but this option has its limitations. There are numerous Twitter tools that help you share videos easily and efficiently and listed below are some of our favorites.

UberTwitter is an application created exclusively for BlackBerry users to embed videos within tweets as well as upload photos, update GoggleTalk, and tweet your location. No GPS is required for the location feature.

Twibble is a Twitter tool that works with any smartphone that supports Java. The program connects with Twitpic and Mobypicture so users can easily share videos and pictures. Twibble also includes notifications for new tweets, full screen mode and provides SSL support for security.

TwitLens is another application that you can use to upload videos. The memory limit per video upload is currently 50 MB, and videos or pictures can be posted on Twitter via mobile phone as well as from computers.

Another great Twitter tool for video sharing is Twixxer. Picture and video thumbnails appear embedded on the user’s tweets with a short URL to full-sized versions of the media. YouTube or Viddler videos can be viewed within the Twitter stream for anyone who has the app installed, so viewers do not have to leave your page.

For those who want to create their own videos and share them on Twitter, Screenr is an app that can help. It is an online recorder you can use to create your own videos and share them without downloading anything. Users can create screencasts from their MAC or PC and viewers can watch online from virtually any internet-ready device.

Magnify.net allows users to publish videos that they find online or create themselves. You can create playlists, add comments, change the design, and more. You can integrate the videos on your website and tweet the URL. You can also find relevant videos created by other users to build a video community.

TwitC is a great Twitter tool that enables users to embed or post links to all types of files. With this application you can search, comment, view, rate, mark as favorite, and share files not only on Twitter, but also on Foursquare and Facebook. It works great for video and file sharing and you can link to YouTube, Hulu, Flickr, and more.

Whether you like to share videos on the go from your cell phone or spend time on your computer or iPad sharing videos, there are definitely some great Twitter tools out there that are easy to use and free of charge. With one or two of these seven applications, you will be able to share that funny clip you saw on YouTube or upload your own homemade video for all of your Twitter followers to enjoy.

Discover the many different Twitter applications available at My Twitter Toolbox and learn more about how to use Twitter for better productivity- visit us today at [http://MyTwitterToolbox.com]

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/David_Perdew/7102

Net-Centric Air Traffic Management System Explained

Net-centric, in its most common definition, refers to “participation as a part of a continuously evolving, complex community of people, devices, information and services interconnected by a communications network to optimise resource management and provide superior information on events and conditions needed to empower decision makers.” It will be clear from the definition that “net-centric” does not refer to a network as such. It is a term that covers all elements constituting the environment referred to as “net-centric”.

Exchanges between members of the community are based not on cumbersome individual interfaces and point to point connections but a flexible network paradigm that is never a hindrance to the evolution of the net-centric community. Net-centricity promotes a “many-to-many” exchange of data, enabling a multiplicity of users and applications to make use of the same data which in itself extends way beyond the traditional, predefined and package oriented data set while still being standardised sufficiently to ensure global interoperability. The aim of a net-centric system is to make all data visible, available and usable, when needed and where needed, to accelerate and improve the decision making process.

In a net-centric environment, unanticipated but authorised users can find and use data more quickly. The net-centric environment is populated with all data on a “post and share before processing” basis enabling authorised users and applications to access data without wait time for processing, exploitation and dissemination. This approach also enables vendors to develop value added services, tailored to specific needs but still based on the shared data.

In the context of Air Traffic Management (ATM), the data to be provided is that concerning the state (past, present and future) of the ATM Network. Participants in this complex community created by the net-centric concept can make use of a vastly enlarged scope of acceptable data sources and data types (aircraft platforms, airspace user systems, etc.) while their own data also reaches the community on a level never previously achieved.

How are decisions different in a net-centric environment?

Information sharing and the end-user applications it enables is the most beneficial enabler of collaborative decision making. The more complete the information that is being shared and the more thorough its accessibility to the community involved, the higher the benefit potential. In a traditional environment, decisions are often arbitrary and the effects of the decisions are not completely transparent to the partners involved. Information sharing on a limited scale (as is the case in the mainly local information sharing hitherto implemented) results in a substantial improvement in the quality of decisions but this is mainly local and improvements in the overall ATM Network are consequential rather than direct.

If the ATM Network is built using the net-centric approach, decisions are empowered on the basis of information available in the totality of the net-centric environment and interaction among members of the community, irrespective of their role or location, can be based on need rather than feasibility.

Since awareness of the state (past, present or future) of the ATM Network is not limited by lack of involvement of any part as such, finding out the likely or actual consequences of decisions is facilitated, providing an important feed-back loop that further improves the quality of decisions on all levels.

Looking at things from the collaborative decision making (CDM) perspective, it is important to realise that net-centricity is not something created for the sole purpose of making CDM better. Net-centricity is a feature of the complete ATM system design, providing different benefits to different aspects of air traffic management operations. It is when collaboration in decision making exploits also the facilities made possible by the overall net-centric ATM Network, that the superior quality of decisions becomes truly visible.

The concept of services

In traditional system design, information technology (IT) was often driving developments and the functionality being provided in some cases became a limitation on the business it was meant to support. Service orientation is the necessary step to separate the business processes from the IT processes and to enable business considerations to drive the underlying IT requirements. Aligning IT to the business rather than the other way round improves business agility and efficiency.

“Service” in this context is defined as “the delivery of a capability in line with published characteristics, including policies.” This refers to the ATM services required and not the underlying (technical) supporting services and physical assets that need to be deployed. In other words, service refers to the business services and not the information technology services.

Well designed business services must exhibit a number of characteristics that describe the service being offered sufficiently well for the service consumer(s) to clearly understand the service and hence to want to make use them.

On the business level, contracts and service level agreements that put the service in the proper context are very important as they cover not only the function(s) that will be performed but also the non-functional terms and conditions to which the consumer and provider have agreed.

There are several business processes that can be identified in the context of air traffic management. Some are related to the aircraft themselves (e.g. turn-round), others concern the passengers and their baggage. These and all other business processes require specific services to progress and complete in accordance with the business objectives of the process owner. Cleaning and refuelling of the aircraft, passenger check-in, security checking, etc. are just a few examples of the business services that need to be provided in order to achieve the objective, in this case a timely and safe departure.

When viewed on an enterprise level, a given service once defined is often reusable across the enterprise where identical or similar processes are found, resulting in a major potential for cost saving.

The services so defined will then set the requirements for the underlying IT support.

The effects of net-centric integration

The term “integration” is often associated with “centralisation” and the elimination/rationalisation of facilities. While from an economic perspective integration may indeed mean all of the above, net-centric integration is about empowering better decision making through the creation of the complex, networked community of people, devices, information and services that generate benefits to all members of the community without necessarily changing the mapping (nature, number and location) of the community members.

At the same time, net-centric integration enables superior business agility and flexibility so that community members may evolve and change (drop out or new ones come in) in response to the changing needs of the users of the system concerned.

In the net-centric context it is not integration as such that changes the enterprise landscape. Such changes, if any, are the result of the economic imperatives that need to be met and which can now be met based on the improved business agility.

The end-user aspects of net-centric operations

One of the less understood aspects of traditional decision making is that it is not really possible to realise when decisions are based on less then full and/or correct information. The garbage in/garbage out principle applies also to the decision making process. At the same time, the effects of less than good decisions may not be immediately visible. In many cases, poor decisions will affect the efficiency of the overall operation without the negative effects even being traceable to individual decisions. So, while everyone may be doing their very best, the result may still be far short of the quality that would be otherwise achievable.

When the scope and quality of data upon which decisions are based is expanded and improved, the quality of decisions improves almost automatically. The decision makers will notice the expanded possibilities and ultimately the success of the enterprise will also improve in a visible way.

When net-centric operations are introduced, the potential for improvement and the options for achieving the improvement multiply considerably. In the more restricted environment, end-users will have been asking for more information and tools to make using data easier. More often than not, their wish went unfulfilled due to lack of data and/or poor quality and the consequent poor performance of the tools that may have been created. The shared environment under net-centric operations brings all the data anyone may ever wish to have. The services are defined on the basis of the business needs and will also support the tools end-users need to properly interact with net-centric environment, integrating into a coherent whole their individual decision making processes.

In a way a well implemented net-centric system is transparent to the end-users. In particular, they do not need to concern themselves with the location of data they require or the quality thereof. Information management, that is part of the net-centric environment, takes care of finding the information needed and also its quality assurance.

End-user applications are the most visible part of net-centric operations and they can be built to satisfy end-user needs in respect of any process that needs to be handled.

In the ATM context, vastly improved controller decision making tools, safety nets and trajectory calculation are only a few examples of the possible benefits.
The institutional implications of net-centric operations

International air navigation is by definition a highly regulated environment and regulations provide some of the most important pillars of both safety and interoperability. The net-centric and service oriented future ATM environment possesses a number of aspects which by themselves provide powerful drivers for proper regulation. It is important to note that the institutional issues associated with net-centric operations are wider than just CDM and hence early efforts to address the CDM related aspects will benefit the whole of the ATM enterprise. The items of particular relevance are summarised below:

o Wide scope of information contributors – The information needs of the future ATM Network, including the scope of that information, will result in a multitude of new information sources/contributors and/or new types of information being obtained from various information sources.

o Air and ground integration – In the traditional ATM set-up, the coupling between ground and airborne systems are normally very loose or non-existent. Once the net-centric ATM Network is realised and aircraft become nodes on the network, a completely new regulatory-target regime is created in the form of the integrated air/ground ATM elements.

o Information sharing – The value of using shared information is one of the main reasons why System Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the future net-centric ATM environment is being defined. There are however legitimate requirements for protecting some information in one or more of several ways, including de-identification of the source, limiting access, etc.

o Integration of diverse airspace use activities – Airspace is used for various purposes and civil aviation is just one of those. Specific military usage (not all of which involves aircraft operations) as well as various civilian projects and missions employ information that is even more sensitive than the normal business or security sensitive information categories. Their proper protection is essential if the military and other operators generating such sensitive information are to be integrated into the overall ATM process. This aspect poses a specific challenge since not only is the information possibly in a military/State security domain but the regulatory domains may also be nested in different organisations that need to be brought together for and under the SWIM umbrella.

o Disappearance of the difference between voice and data – In the mid- to longer time frames, the expected traffic levels will make the move to almost exclusive use of digital link communications inevitable. This does not mean the disappearance of voice communications on the end-user level. However, a reliable communications system that can serve the voice and data needs of the future ATM environment is by definition digital and hence even voice messages will be transferred via digital means. Hence a convergence of the regulatory regimes for voice and data communications will be inevitable.

o Global interoperability – Aeronautical information has always been global in nature but the strongly limited access and product oriented philosophy has contained the issues of global interoperability. The net-centric approach of the new ATM environment will create large islands of shared information which must however be able to interoperate between each other as well as with legacy environments, constituting a new, global need for proper regulatory regimes.

o Common information pipes for passenger and operational communications – In the traditional analogue environment, aviation has enjoyed dedicated communications means and this tradition was carried over to a certain extent also into the new digital communications technologies. The dedicated “pipe” in air/ground communications is certainly a reality today but the same cannot be said of the ground-ground communications links. The early point to point connections have been replaced in most applications by leased lines which, for substantial segments, are in fact shared with other, often not aviation, users. The drivers behind this change are obviously cost effectiveness considerations. Although early attempts to provide in-flight passenger connectivity have not proved the commercial success many had forecast, it is already visible that in the not too distant future, personal communications needs will evolve to the point where people will demand uninterrupted connectivity even on relatively short flights. Since such demands will always fetch a premium price, it stands to reason that combining the operational and passenger connectivity needs onto a single air/ground pipe could be commercially attractive. While the technology to do this safely will certainly be available, the regulatory aspects will have to be explored in time to ensure that the actual solutions used meet all the safety and other requirements.

o The value of information – Information is a valuable commodity and in the competitive environment of aviation this commodity is of course sought after by many partners, including others than only aircraft operators or airports. The essential safety contribution of information in air traffic management creates an especially complicated web of relationships, some commercial some not, some State obligations some voluntary, and so on that need to be properly regulated with a view to ensuring cost recovery while not discouraging information use.

o Cost effectiveness – Although not always thought of as a driver for regulation, a proper regulatory environment will favour cost-effective, user oriented solutions.

o Training and personnel licensing – The information sharing environment of SWIM will require experts who are conversant not only with the requirements of air traffic management and aircraft operations but also the information technology aspects of the new approach to managing information. This has implications in the construction and approval of training syllabuses, examination fulfilment criteria as well as the qualification requirements. The need for refresher/recurrent training also grows and needs to be part of the overall regulatory regime.

o Standardisation – System wide sharing of information in a net-centric environment requires that the data be the subject of proper standardisation on all levels. This is the key to achieving global interoperability in the technical as well as the service/operational sense. The development and use of the necessary standards can only be realised under a proper regulatory regime.
All the above aspects imply the creation of a regulatory regime that is aligned with the specific needs of a net-centric operation and which is able to regulate for safety and proper performance, including economic performance, appropriate for the new digital environment. Trying to apply traditional methods of regulation without taking the new realities into account is counter productive and must be avoided. This is an important message for both the regulators and the regulated.

The aspects of regulation to be considered include:

o Safety
o Security
o Information interoperability
o Service level interoperability
o Physical interoperability
o Economics
In terms of who should be regulated, thought should be given to at least:

o The State as data provider
o Licensed providers of services, including network services
o Licensed data sources
o Licensed providers of end-user applications
o User credentials and trusted users

It is important to answer also the question: who should be the regulator? This must be agreed in terms of:

o International rules and global oversight
o Licensing rules and global oversight
The types of regulatory activities that need to be put in place concern mainly compliance verification and certification; quality maintenance; and enforcement and penalties.

As mentioned already, the above institutional aspects concern more than just CDM, however, for CDM and in particular information sharing to work in the net-centric environment, they need to be addressed as a prerequisite of implementation.
The technical implications of net-centric operations

On the conceptual level, net-centric operations mean the sharing of superior quality information as part of a community and acting on that information to improve decisions for the benefit of the individual as well as for the network (the networked community). Obviously, this type of operation must be enabled by a proper technical infrastructure.

This technical infrastructure is often thought of as a network with the required band-width and reliability; it is true that the replacement of the one-to-one connections that characterise legacy systems with the many-to-many relationships of the net-centric environment does require a powerful network that fully meets all the quality requirements, but there is much more to net-centricity than this.

The management of the shared data pool, including currency, access rights, quality control, etc. brings in a layer of technical requirements that sit higher than the network as such.

If we then define ‘information’ as ‘data put in context’ it is easy to see that creating the information from the shared data constitutes yet another layer of required technical solutions. These are often referred to as intelligent end-user applications. Tools which end-users can call upon to perform tasks they need for successfully completing their missions. End-users may be pilots, air traffic controllers, flight dispatchers, handling agents or any other person or system with a need for the shared information. In all cases, the end-user applications collect and collate the data needed to create the information required. This then may be a synthetic display of the airport on an EFB, a trajectory on a what-if tool display or a list of arrivals for the taxi company and so on.

End-user applications are scalable to fit, both in functionality and cost, the specific needs of the end-user for whom they are created. This scalability enables the end-user applications to run on different networked devices from simple PDAs through airlines systems to on-board equipment.

It shall be noted that one of the most important characteristics of a net-centric environment that technical solutions must support is that the requirements against equipment are driven by the services/functionality they must provide and NOT by their actual location in the network. As an example, the integrity of the data used to build a trajectory and the quality of the application used to manipulate/interact with the trajectory will depend on the use that will be made of the trajectory and not per se on whether the application is running on the ground or in an aircraft.

This adaptability of the technical solutions to the actual needs (rather than location in the network) leads to important cost saving opportunities.

Net-centricity – the essence of the future

The net-centric approach to system design is not a silver bullet. It is just the environment that enables properly managed information to be exploited to the full and provide the enterprise with the agility it needs to constantly adapt to the changing world for the benefit of the customers and the enterprise itself.

It is the end-user applications built to work in the net-centric environment that come closest to being the silver bullets…

Please visit my blog at http://www.roger-wilco.net! You will find many more aviation stories and other interesting items there.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Steve_Zerkowitz/539175

Stock Price Evaluation: Earnings Per Share and Diluted Earnings Per Share

There are many ways for investors to evaluate company profitability and stock prices. In fact, it is suggested by many advisors and analysts that multiple financial measures be used to fully understand a company’s existing and potential performance that could lead to an increase in dividend payouts and returns from an increase in stock price. Two of these important measures are the earnings per share (EPS) and diluted earnings per share. Both are a ratio that reflect a corporation’s net income and allow investor’s a simplified way to compare the stock price and performance of different companies.

Earnings per share and diluted earnings per share are calculated ratios of a company’s net income to the number of common stock shares outstanding. As stated above, the EPS figures reflect a company’s profitability, so a higher EPS can indicate higher net income. When comparing two or more stocks, the EPS allows for a basic comparison of the companies’ earning potential. For example, if someone were reviewing two companies in the same industry and sees that Company A has an EPS of $5.00 and Company B has an EPS of $10.00, it would be clear that Company B is simply earning more money per share than Company A. This is not to say that Company B is actually more profitable, it could simply have less issued shares than Company A.

Diluted earnings per share is calculated the same way as basic EPS in relation to the number of shares outstanding, however, the math used for the amount of shares outstanding is taken a step further. Under diluted earnings per share, any issued long-term debt (bonds/stock options) or convertible preferred stocks must be accounted for in the amount of shares outstanding. This causes diluted earnings per share to be less than basic EPS in dollar amount, but not necessarily less important or a reflection that the company stock is over valued. Actually, some investors or analysts prefer to base investing decisions from the diluted EPS figure since it reflects an entity’s use of various stock options and shows a worse case scenario for pricing if all options were to be put into place.

Sometimes both basic EPS and diluted EPS will be taken a step further to evaluate an entity’s future performance. These predicted calculations will use expected future net income in order to show a possible increase or decrease in EPS. These figures are another matrix that investors can use to easily compare and contrast a company’s performance from today to a point in time in the future, usually one fiscal year. The hope is that investors can make easy value determinations of their stocks based on the expected future earnings by using simplified ratio matrices.

Some may argue that EPS is the most important figure available in evaluating a company and their stock price. At the end of the day, investors simply want to know how much money the companies they have invested in are earning, and the EPS figures put that in an up-front and easy to understand number. The EPS is used directly to calculate a stock’s price/earnings (P/E) ratio. While the P/E ratio is another very important evaluation number, it would require it’s own article for full explanation, the EPS is a factor in calculating the P/E ratio so therefore some analysts rank the EPS higher in importance. The P/E ratio tells an investor how much they are paying for $1.00 in company earnings by purchasing the stock. The use of EPS in this ratio ties them together in the evaluation of a company’s net income and determination of how expensive a share price truly is.

The basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share figures are just two of multiple numbers, figures, and matrices used in determining the true value of a company, its share price, and potential return on one’s investment. As stated before, the EPS should not be the only factor used to finalize an investment decision, but it may be the most important. The EPS may be the most direct way to answer the question of how much a company makes and what that entity is worth.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Robert_Gessner_Jr/1692877

Mutual Fund NAV – Net Asset Value And It’s Use

Mutual funds NAV is defined as the Net Asset Value of the fund. The shares are traded daily at a share price which changes every day. Every mutual has a NAV, or Net Asset Value per share, which is computed every day, and is derived from the closing market price, for that particular day, of the shares and various other securities, which are in its investment portfolio.

Every buy or sell order, for shares of mutual funds, is priced based on the NAV on the day of the trade. The investor will not actually get the trade price at which this transaction took place till the next day.

Mutual funds by definition pay out all of their income and capital gains to their share holders. Because of this, the changes in the NAV of any fund are definitely not the best way to gauge its performance. The true performance may be best measured by the annual total return.

Closed end mutuals and ETFs are traded in the same way as stocks on the stock market. As a result of this the shares of these trade at the market value, which can sometimes be above (ie trading at a premium) or sometimes below ( ie trading at a discount) the actual Net Asset Value or NAV of the fund which is being traded.

Exchange traded funds (ETFs) are traded on the stock market daily, just like any stock is traded. The ETFs value per share is also commonly known as its NAV or Net Asset Value per share.

To summarise this the dollar value per share of any mutual fund is computed by dividing the total value of all securities, which are in the portfolio of the fund, minus any liabilities it may have, by the number of shares outstanding at the time of calculation.

The net asset value per share of a fund is a very important figure. Mutual fund investors should know how this figure is calculated and how to use it properly. See our website for lots of free info about NAV: [http://www.mutualfundnav.org] At our blog http://mutualfundandstockinvesting.blogspot.com you will find a lot of excellent information about investing.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/John_Mowatt/158115

Information Sharing – The New Intelligence Capability

Introduction Never has there been a more urgent time to ensure that the UK has a responsive and joined-up approach to its security challenges, than in the early years of the 21st Century. The asymmetric nature of the threats we face, whether they are man-made or environmental, physical or virtual, requires that the security & resilience community acts on intelligence from an increasingly complex network of information proactive and reactive sources with a greater level of speed and accuracy.

UK Security Challenges

1. The need for speed The enemies we face today are resourceful and, although they implement their plans with varying levels of effectiveness, are able create or change tactics and plans with alarming speed and in apparent unpredictable fashion. This is a pace of change that we are currently unable to match which means that the best laid plans could be redundant before they are started!

2. Providing analysts with information to act upon The culture and operations of government departments and agencies charged with the security and resilience have evolved over many years. However, this has tended to be in a partitioned manner which mitigates against seamless co-operation, collaboration and information sharing. The stakeholder community is powerful and immense. By default though, it’s comparatively cumbersome compared with the enemy we face.

Industry must therefore help government introduce information sharing measures between departments (while still maintaining the integrity of the source information) that enable analysts to make decisions, not manage information.

3. Information system procurement At the same time, we should also consider how we manage the procurement of complex information systems. If we are assuming that we struggle to respond to security threats, we must ask whether the processes we undertake to define our requirements, build and integrate our information systems lend themselves to implementing new capability quickly.

If current methods hamper the way we respond to security challenges facing us, perhaps we could harness the inherent power and capabilities of the state organs in a way that allows information to be more effectively accessed, assessed and acted upon?

Shift Happens American lecturer Karl Fisch’s globally acclaimed presentation ‘Shift happens’ demonstrates dramatically just how quickly the information age, and the technology driving it, is changing the world of tomorrow, today!

In light of Fisch’s assertions about the pace of technological change, industry cannot be allowed to provide IT solutions that are out of date before the ITT is published.

Similarly, if government finds it challenging to improve the inter-departmental and agency collaboration and co-operation needed to meet this pace of change and the unpredictable nature of the threats faced, it must consider an alternative approach to a solution – something which already helps the way the world rapidly shares information… the Internet.

The Internet has revolutionised our lives in many ways. The one relevant to information sharing is its ability to enable technology at different levels of evolution to be used to connect individuals and business together. Not having identical computers, applications or indeed levels of security is not a barrier to accessing the information in the same way

Therefore if we can all gain access to information using widespread and commonplace NET technologies, our ability to improve the quality of our intelligence should not mean we have to reinvent the wheel to do so.

Adopting best practise from the US This view of information sharing / intelligence gathering was first seized upon by the US following the atrocities of 9/11. The US Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) reviewed the culture and processes of their Counter Terrorism (CT) machine, and enforced unilateral changes across its homeland security community. The ODNI rewrote policy and changed the culture, recognising that if it proved the appropriate technology, cultural culture would happen automatically. They understood the nature of the young analysts now delivering the information sharing; by providing them with common architectural backbone, the analysts were able to use commonplace NET technologies through which to forge new relationships, and through these relationships they could share information.

The architecture provided analysts with the capability to capture, collate, and disseminate intelligence from a variety of proactive and reactive information sources. However, each individual organisation owned its own presence on it while retaining control of their information assets, publishing only what needed publishing.

This can be likened to corporate websites, where users locate specific information and sites through search engines. Corporations allow staff to access the web through gateways and use services provided by others, such as internet banking or social networking sites, which demonstrates controlled access.

Once individuals have found other ‘like minded’ people, they communicate by email, collaborative tools, virtual environments, video conferencing etc. It is not a single system, but a federation of systems working to the same standards.

The US solution has therefore shown us all what can be achieved by adopting NET technology and utilised the intuitive tools that we all already use. The only, but significant, difference is that the network is secured and interconnection policies are strictly controlled. By utilising ‘Commercial Off The Shelf’ (COTS) technologies, (many developed for the finance industry), Secure Managed Interfaces (SMIs) can be built to control the boundary between an organisation and the ‘network’. Each organisation owns its own presence on the network and dictates the level of access its own users have by the security threat mitigation level required to gain accreditation or put more simply, they control their own destiny. The content’s management and usage is controlled by the organisation and achieved through COTS technology.

With the US approach mandated, culture change was a natural evolution. The younger generation of analysts used the system as a social networking tool, posting minimal information to ‘go fishing’ for like-minded individuals who found them using the search engines. As a result, information sharing had been enhanced significantly.

Could this work in the UK? The UK already connects and contributes to the US CT sharing network as described above. Some of our national intelligence systems connect directly, through a UK accredited and secure gateway, to our US, Canadian and Australian allies – proving that the technology works already. The real question therefore is not whether this can be achieved technologically (it already has been), but can we make it work without a decree within current UK policy?

This paper suggests that it is possible and, furthermore, without dismantling established departmental infrastructures or currently operational information systems managed by incumbent industrial partners. In fact, some companies have already connected existing infrastructure to this type of information sharing network.

The Office for Security and Counter Terrorism (OSCT) is currently working alongside the pan industry alliance RISC (UK Security and Resilience Industry Suppliers’ Community) to understand how to provide a clear method of connecting existing national systems, using the US approach, rather than having to replace them all simultaneously.

Currently, many suppliers provide the ‘back office’ capability to the various organisations. But if they all work together, it could create a ‘classified internet’ that allows information that needs sharing to be shared in a timely way that allows action to be taken on it.

A solution such as this will not compromise the raw information; only that which needs publishing to the wider community will get published. As in the US (and in compliance with the new Cabinet Office government framework for information management), each department would own its own information. However, what it also provides is the capability to share information at such a speed that it will enable the security and resilience community to respond appropriately to combat the asymmetric tactics and networks of our enemies.

Such a network would also enable non-traditional security players to have a presence on this ‘classified internet’, including those worried about non-malicious threats such as flooding, pandemics etc. This relates directly to the aspirations of the National Security Strategy to provide a joined up approach to meet the diversity of the identified issues. These issues may require non-obvious solutions; indeed non-obvious players may pick up the threat before traditional security sources.

The NET technologies would make it possible to create connections using very ‘limited’ information release; it would only take a key word, posted on a website with contact details, to make a connection between two analysts. One-to-one they can then pass information in a more controlled manner.

And there is no reason why it should stop at merely sharing information – perhaps usage could be made of virtual world technology, so that the ‘players’ within an interest group could meet and train, developing a community of useful contacts – it is not necessarily what you know, but who you know!

The UK’s adaptation of such an approach does not therefore need a single mammoth procurement where the individual requirements get ‘compromised’ to meet varying organisation-specific requirements. Instead, a central ‘core’ and ‘network’ are required to link the network together. Individual procurements can move at each department’s pace.

As for the definition of the interconnection requirements, industry in the main, understands these because they connect to the ‘web’ already. It is just the way the security enforcing elements – all of which are off the shelf – have to be configured to meet the ‘code of connection’, that slightly complicates the issue. This again refers to configuring commonly-used net capability, not bespoke code.

Conclusion It seems that the US approach to intelligence gathering, based on web-enabled information sharing, offers a viable approach to meeting the UK intelligence requirements of the early 21st Century. It helps:

Improve our response time to match that of our enemies and the security threats they pose, by releasing the power of the information held across government
Enhance investment in current infrastructure and technology by circumventing the need for organisational change, updates to procurement policy or the sensitivities of where information is stored
Empower analysts to do the job with which they are charged, make decisions that help protect the UK and its citizens against current threats, and provide them with ability to meet the challenges of future and, as of yet undefined, threats So what of these undefined threats in the coming years? Can the UK have such a system (sharing multiple information streams and enhancing intelligence) in time for a UK security landmark such as 2012 and provide a capability to develop, practise, and perfect the capability well ahead of 2012? This paper suggests that as an industry, we can – at least in an embryonic but functional way. The truth is, this must be in place by April 2010 anyway. To have a cohesive and complete intelligence platform in place, that answers immediate security questions and addresses future requirements, we must ensure a sound architectural foundation is implemented in the coming months. RISC aims to achieve industry agreement on the way forward in the coming months, with the objective of working towards this common goal for an architectural backbone to be in place to meet the current intelligence challenge and that which we all face for 2012 and beyond. As Karl Fisch reminds us, shift happens and we need to shift now.

By Michael-Clayforth Carr, VEGA

Please contact us for further information.

Share market instiute in indore is grown up as easy way to learn

The money you earn is partially spent and partly is saved, for meeting the future expenses. If you keep your savings idle its nominal value remains the same but real value decreases by prevailing inflation. Instead of keeping the savings idle, you part it somewhere to get the returns on the capital in future. This is called an investment. There are various avenues for investment like bank deposits, postal deposits, real estate, jewellery, paintings, life insurance, tax savings schemes likes PPF/NSC or stock market related instruments called securities like shares, debentures, bonds, etc. Often, investors who lack confidence based on the belief that they don’t have the knowledge to successfully manage their own investments in shares and thus share market institutes in Indore are dedicated to impart knowledge to individuals and professionals. When it comes to beating the market and earning exceptionally high returns, at this time people might think that if one does not have the degree or financial expertise or is not ready to invest the majority of the time and resources to read market movements, how can he earn through market. Here is when the professional analysts and their recommendations come in picture. Most of the share market institutes in Indore acknowledge the following recommendations:

1- Beware of buying shares whose price has dramatically outperformed the overall market. There’s bound to be a correction.

2- There is no way of knowing that a share is outperforming the market until sometime after the outperformance has begun by then, it may be too late.

3- The market prices shares more on future expectations than on past performance.

You make a capital gain when you sell shares for a higher price than you paid for them. When you buy or sell shares this is known as trading and those who do it frequently are known as traders. In most cases you trade shares using an agent known as stockbroker who charges fee that subsequently lowers the profit, thus share market institutes in Indore train individuals to optimise the profits and gains accordingly. When you sale share for profit you make real capital gain. If the prices of shares go up in price after you buy them and you keep holding but do not sell, you are making a theoretical capital gain, known as paper or unrealised gain. If you make a net capital gain from share trading its considered as taxable income and must be declared in your taxation return for the financial year in which the sell trade occurred, all these rules are introduced in the training provided by share market institute in Indore. A net capital gain is taxed in the same way as any other income with one exception. If you have held the shares for one year or longer only half the capital gain is considered taxable income.

Home Network Attached Storage Buyers Guide

Network attached storage (NAS) for the home is all the rage. NAS provides a way to share files, access music and movies and backup your data. To help people interested in a NAS device choose the best network attached storage for them, NASDrives.net presents this buyers guide.

What is Network Attached Storage?

Network attached storage devices are small servers dedicated to nothing but file sharing. Instead of having to physically connect a drive to your computer, you can just plug a device into your home network that provides additional storage space. Storage prices are falling and adding 250gb, 500gb or even 1 tb (terabyte) is becoming cheap and easy.

Advantages of NAS

* It’s a simple way to add data storage to all your computers rather than just one.

* Multiple computers are able to access files anytime and do not rely on a host PC for file sharing.

* Savings on your electric bill because a power hungry computer or server need not be on 24 hours a day to share files.

* New media server features allow for centralization of your music and movie library so it can be shared by everyone on your network and even streamed to home audio and video devices.

* Provides a central place for backup storage.

Explanation of features

USB Print Server – A USB printer can be connected to the NAS device and it can share the printer over the network.

Media Server – The device can stream media to any device on the network capable of receiving it. MP3’s or movies can stream to your PC or movies can stream to a media center connected to your TV.

UPnP – Universal Plug and Play. UPnP is a dynamic zero-configuration protocol used for device interconnection. That’s quite a mouthful but what it means is that UPnP devices can talk to other UPnP devices without any intervention from you. It just works.

DLNA – Digital Living Network Alliance. DLNA is a certification built on other technologies. DLNA certification insures that certified devices will be able to talk to each other and provide a minimum level of features.

RAID – Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. RAID, in it’s many configurations, sacrifices some disk space for a level of data redundancy. RAID 1, called mirroring, makes an exact duplicate of the primary disk. If the primary disk fails then the secondary “mirrored” disk can take it’s place until you buy a replacement. RAID only helps in cases of hardware failure and is not to be mistaken for a backup strategy. If you accidentally delete a file on the primary disk the file is deleted on the mirror as well.

FTP Server – File Transfer Protocol server. Most people will not need this and will use Windows file shares instead. Some security cameras and office scanners have the ability to save to FTP servers and in those cases, and many more, this feature would come in handy.

iTunes compatible – The NAS has the ability to publish it’s media files to a computer running iTunes. The computer with iTunes would then be able to play those media files.

USB Ports – External USB storage can be added on to extend the capacity of your NAS. This can insure your NAS is never obsolete! When you run out of space you can buy an inexpensive external USB disk and plug it into your NAS. A few systems will use these for USB printer sharing or as a host for your digital camera.

Gigabit Ethernet – 1 billion bits per second transfer rate. Most wiring done in homes or offices in the last 5 years was gigabit rated but the equipment is still a bit more expensive than 100 megabit so most homes and small offices do not support this. Gigabit will get cheaper home and SOHO use so it’s still a good feature to have.

Backup Software Included – A major reason to add NAS to your network is backups. Quite a few drives come with Windows backup software to automate this important but often overlooked task.

Vista Support – Vista removed support for some older Windows file sharing technologies and some NAS drives still rely on it. If you use Vista in your home or office, make sure the NAS says it’s Vista compatible.

Mac support – Native Mac support is spotty so make sure the device is compatible with your Mac and your version of the Mac OS. Macs are able to access Windows shares so this really isn’t much of an issue.

Active Directory support – If you’re running a Windows Server or Windows Small Business Server in your office then you need this. It allows your existing network users to use the file shares on the NAS without creating new usernames and passwords. Very handy.

Gigabit Jumbo Frames – Geekspeak for faster networking.

File access via web server – This allows you to browse files on the NAS via a web browser. This would be handy if you were trying to access it from a system that did not support Windows files sharing or if you just preferred to access the files that way.

DFS support – Distributed File System. This is another Windows technical term that means that a remote shared folder can be mirrored to the NAS device. This is great for a business with a Windows Server and multiple locations.

Accessible via the Internet – A few companies have setup central servers that act as a middleman between Internet connected users and your NAS. This makes your files accessible by anyone, anywhere. Of course, everything is password protected for security. The possibilities here are endless.

Reinsurance Market Outlook to 2015 – Anjali

The report covers specific insights on the market size and segmentation, drivers and restraints, recent trends and developments and future outlook of the reinsurance industry globally and in the three regions including Europe, North America, and Asia Pacific. The report also entails the market size on the basis of net reinsurance premium written and market share of various companies at the country level. Overall, the report offers a comprehensive analysis of the entire reinsurance industry.

The global reinsurance industry was valued at USD ~ million in terms of gross premium written in 2009. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~% from 2010-2015, to reach USD ~ million in 2015. Net premium written increased from USD ~ million in 2001 to USD ~ million in 2009. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~% from 2010-2015 to reach USD ~ million by 2015.

With a market share close to ~%, Europe was the market leader on the basis of global net reinsurance premium written in 2009. North America with a share of ~% was the second largest region followed by the Asia Pacific region with a share of ~%. Rest of the World (ROW) also had a small share of ~%.

Reinsurance Industry in North America

The North America reinsurance market rebounded in 2009 and reached USD ~ million in 2009. By 2015, the market for North America is expected to reach USD ~ million.

North America reinsurance market is dominated by the US, accounting for nearly ~% of total net reinsurance premium in 2009. Bermuda is the second largest country in the region with a market share of ~% followed by Canada with ~% of the market share.

Reinsurance Industry in Europe

The reinsurance industry in Europe is the biggest market in the world. Alone, Europe accounts for more than ~% of the market. In 2010, the reinsurance industry stood at under USD ~ billion. The market is expected to grow at a steady CAGR of ~% from 2010-2015 and would reach USD ~ million in 2015.

Germany is the largest reinsurance market contributing ~% of the total net premium written in the region. The UK is speeding up in its race to chase Germany with Lloyd’s contributing the maximum to the growth in the country.

Reinsurance Industry in Asia Pacific

The reinsurance market in Asia Pacific was valued at USD ~ million in 2009, accounting for nearly ~% of the global reinsurance market. It is expected that the market will reach to USD ~ million by 2015, growing at an expected 6 year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from 2010 to 2015 of ~%.

Japan and China are the dominant markets of Asia Pacific which accounted for over ~% of the net premium written in the region in 2009. Korea is ranked third which accounted for nearly ~%, followed by India with market share of ~%.

Scope of Research

The report entails thorough analysis, drivers, restraints and market opportunities for reinsurance industry globally. The scope of the report includes:

• The market size of global reinsurance industry in terms of gross and net reinsurance premium written, 2001 to 2015

• The market size of global life and non-life reinsurance industry in terms of net reinsurance premium written, 2009 and 2015

• The market size of reinsurance industry in terms of net reinsurance premium written for all the major regions including Europe, North America and Asia Pacific, forecast to 2015

• The market size of reinsurance industry in terms of net reinsurance premium written for major countries including Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Ireland, the US, Bermuda, Japan and others, forecast to 2015

• Competitive Landscape of the top reinsurers (Munich Re, Swiss Re, Lloyd’s of London, Berkshire Hathaway, SCOR SE and others) on the basis of net reinsurance premium written along with the combined ratio globally, 2009

• Competitive Landscape of the major reinsurers in various countries such as Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Ireland, the US, Bermuda, Japan and others on the basis of net reinsurance premium written along with the combined ratio, 2009

• In-depth analysis of trends and developments, drivers and restraints for Global, Europe, North America and Asia Pacific reinsurance industry

• Market opportunities and Future Outlook for Global reinsurance industry including all the regions (Europe, North America and Asia Pacific) to 2015

Arth Business Research – Academic Help

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Best Mix of Capital Case

ACME Corp is a publicly traded firm listed on the NASDAQ. Its current common stock price is 10 dollars per share. This year the company currently has 75 million dollars in sales. It expects sales to grow at 3 percent a year for the next several years. The company’s current fixed costs are 50 million dollars. The federal tax rate is 40 percent. The variable costs are 22.5 million dollars this year. There are 1,000,000 shares outstanding.

The company has four capital projects that it would like to fund this year. If funded all four projects would be producing results for the firm one year from now. Project A has a life of 8 years, an initial investment of 2 million dollars, and an IRR of 12 percent. Project B has a 5 million dollar initial investment and a five-year life with an annual net cash income expected of 1,318,982 and an IRR of 10 percent. Project C has a life of 10 years, an IRR of 10 percent and a 4 million dollar initial investment. Project D is a 7-year project with an initial investment of 3 million dollars and a 9 percent IRR. There is an example in the week six part B lecture that explains how to calculate the net cash income for the three projects which do not have net cash income provided.

If the company uses debt, its investment banker suggests the following structure: 8 year maturity, equal annual principal repayments over the 8 years, and a 12 percent interest rate on outstanding principal.

The company pays no dividends on its common stock. The investment banker said to assume the firm would be able to issue common stock at the current market price, assuming the earnings per share will not be hurt in the future.

Preferred stock can be issued for a par value of 25 dollars per share and an annual dividend yield of 8 percent per share. Preferred dividends are not tax deductible to the company. Instead they are paid out of net income after taxes. Earnings per share on common stock should be calculated after preferred dividends have been paid. The numbers of shares of preferred stock are not included in the earnings per share calculation. This only includes common stock.

For this case, we are not going to require a marginal cost of capital analysis. Assume that all four projects are going to be done. The Price Earnings ratio that is calculated in problem number one should also be utilized, as appropriate in each of the five remaining problems to forecast the stock price.

Case Requirements

1. Prepare a baseline income statement and forecast for 2 years. (current year and year 1 and year 2) without the impact of the new capital program. (20 points)

2. Prepare a current and 2 year forecast which shows the impact of the capital program on the company’s income statement, prior to selecting any funding options. (20 points)

3. Prepare an income statement forecast (year 1 of forecast in item 2) that shows a 100 percent debt financing option. Please show the forecasted earnings per share and the forecasted stock price, assuming the current PE multiple remains the same. (just as in the example) (20 points)

4. Prepare an income statement forecast as in number 3, using 100 percent common stock as the funding source. (20 points)

5. Prepare an income statement forecast for year 1 (as in number 3) using a mix of debt, common stock, and preferred stock. The goal is to attempt to avoid reducing the current stock price and hopefully increasing the price. Show your assumptions clearly on your funding mix. (20 points)

6. Do the problem in number five, assuming that the 3 percent increase in sales does not occur. Instead, assume that the sales remain flat from the current year to year 1. Again, calculate the best mix of debt and equity to maximize stock prices (or at least minimize the damage to the stock price) , assuming the current PE multiple remains unchanged.

(20 points)

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