Information Sharing – The New Intelligence Capability

Introduction Never has there been a more urgent time to ensure that the UK has a responsive and joined-up approach to its security challenges, than in the early years of the 21st Century. The asymmetric nature of the threats we face, whether they are man-made or environmental, physical or virtual, requires that the security & resilience community acts on intelligence from an increasingly complex network of information proactive and reactive sources with a greater level of speed and accuracy.

UK Security Challenges

1. The need for speed The enemies we face today are resourceful and, although they implement their plans with varying levels of effectiveness, are able create or change tactics and plans with alarming speed and in apparent unpredictable fashion. This is a pace of change that we are currently unable to match which means that the best laid plans could be redundant before they are started!

2. Providing analysts with information to act upon The culture and operations of government departments and agencies charged with the security and resilience have evolved over many years. However, this has tended to be in a partitioned manner which mitigates against seamless co-operation, collaboration and information sharing. The stakeholder community is powerful and immense. By default though, it’s comparatively cumbersome compared with the enemy we face.

Industry must therefore help government introduce information sharing measures between departments (while still maintaining the integrity of the source information) that enable analysts to make decisions, not manage information.

3. Information system procurement At the same time, we should also consider how we manage the procurement of complex information systems. If we are assuming that we struggle to respond to security threats, we must ask whether the processes we undertake to define our requirements, build and integrate our information systems lend themselves to implementing new capability quickly.

If current methods hamper the way we respond to security challenges facing us, perhaps we could harness the inherent power and capabilities of the state organs in a way that allows information to be more effectively accessed, assessed and acted upon?

Shift Happens American lecturer Karl Fisch’s globally acclaimed presentation ‘Shift happens’ demonstrates dramatically just how quickly the information age, and the technology driving it, is changing the world of tomorrow, today!

In light of Fisch’s assertions about the pace of technological change, industry cannot be allowed to provide IT solutions that are out of date before the ITT is published.

Similarly, if government finds it challenging to improve the inter-departmental and agency collaboration and co-operation needed to meet this pace of change and the unpredictable nature of the threats faced, it must consider an alternative approach to a solution – something which already helps the way the world rapidly shares information… the Internet.

The Internet has revolutionised our lives in many ways. The one relevant to information sharing is its ability to enable technology at different levels of evolution to be used to connect individuals and business together. Not having identical computers, applications or indeed levels of security is not a barrier to accessing the information in the same way

Therefore if we can all gain access to information using widespread and commonplace NET technologies, our ability to improve the quality of our intelligence should not mean we have to reinvent the wheel to do so.

Adopting best practise from the US This view of information sharing / intelligence gathering was first seized upon by the US following the atrocities of 9/11. The US Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) reviewed the culture and processes of their Counter Terrorism (CT) machine, and enforced unilateral changes across its homeland security community. The ODNI rewrote policy and changed the culture, recognising that if it proved the appropriate technology, cultural culture would happen automatically. They understood the nature of the young analysts now delivering the information sharing; by providing them with common architectural backbone, the analysts were able to use commonplace NET technologies through which to forge new relationships, and through these relationships they could share information.

The architecture provided analysts with the capability to capture, collate, and disseminate intelligence from a variety of proactive and reactive information sources. However, each individual organisation owned its own presence on it while retaining control of their information assets, publishing only what needed publishing.

This can be likened to corporate websites, where users locate specific information and sites through search engines. Corporations allow staff to access the web through gateways and use services provided by others, such as internet banking or social networking sites, which demonstrates controlled access.

Once individuals have found other ‘like minded’ people, they communicate by email, collaborative tools, virtual environments, video conferencing etc. It is not a single system, but a federation of systems working to the same standards.

The US solution has therefore shown us all what can be achieved by adopting NET technology and utilised the intuitive tools that we all already use. The only, but significant, difference is that the network is secured and interconnection policies are strictly controlled. By utilising ‘Commercial Off The Shelf’ (COTS) technologies, (many developed for the finance industry), Secure Managed Interfaces (SMIs) can be built to control the boundary between an organisation and the ‘network’. Each organisation owns its own presence on the network and dictates the level of access its own users have by the security threat mitigation level required to gain accreditation or put more simply, they control their own destiny. The content’s management and usage is controlled by the organisation and achieved through COTS technology.

With the US approach mandated, culture change was a natural evolution. The younger generation of analysts used the system as a social networking tool, posting minimal information to ‘go fishing’ for like-minded individuals who found them using the search engines. As a result, information sharing had been enhanced significantly.

Could this work in the UK? The UK already connects and contributes to the US CT sharing network as described above. Some of our national intelligence systems connect directly, through a UK accredited and secure gateway, to our US, Canadian and Australian allies – proving that the technology works already. The real question therefore is not whether this can be achieved technologically (it already has been), but can we make it work without a decree within current UK policy?

This paper suggests that it is possible and, furthermore, without dismantling established departmental infrastructures or currently operational information systems managed by incumbent industrial partners. In fact, some companies have already connected existing infrastructure to this type of information sharing network.

The Office for Security and Counter Terrorism (OSCT) is currently working alongside the pan industry alliance RISC (UK Security and Resilience Industry Suppliers’ Community) to understand how to provide a clear method of connecting existing national systems, using the US approach, rather than having to replace them all simultaneously.

Currently, many suppliers provide the ‘back office’ capability to the various organisations. But if they all work together, it could create a ‘classified internet’ that allows information that needs sharing to be shared in a timely way that allows action to be taken on it.

A solution such as this will not compromise the raw information; only that which needs publishing to the wider community will get published. As in the US (and in compliance with the new Cabinet Office government framework for information management), each department would own its own information. However, what it also provides is the capability to share information at such a speed that it will enable the security and resilience community to respond appropriately to combat the asymmetric tactics and networks of our enemies.

Such a network would also enable non-traditional security players to have a presence on this ‘classified internet’, including those worried about non-malicious threats such as flooding, pandemics etc. This relates directly to the aspirations of the National Security Strategy to provide a joined up approach to meet the diversity of the identified issues. These issues may require non-obvious solutions; indeed non-obvious players may pick up the threat before traditional security sources.

The NET technologies would make it possible to create connections using very ‘limited’ information release; it would only take a key word, posted on a website with contact details, to make a connection between two analysts. One-to-one they can then pass information in a more controlled manner.

And there is no reason why it should stop at merely sharing information – perhaps usage could be made of virtual world technology, so that the ‘players’ within an interest group could meet and train, developing a community of useful contacts – it is not necessarily what you know, but who you know!

The UK’s adaptation of such an approach does not therefore need a single mammoth procurement where the individual requirements get ‘compromised’ to meet varying organisation-specific requirements. Instead, a central ‘core’ and ‘network’ are required to link the network together. Individual procurements can move at each department’s pace.

As for the definition of the interconnection requirements, industry in the main, understands these because they connect to the ‘web’ already. It is just the way the security enforcing elements – all of which are off the shelf – have to be configured to meet the ‘code of connection’, that slightly complicates the issue. This again refers to configuring commonly-used net capability, not bespoke code.

Conclusion It seems that the US approach to intelligence gathering, based on web-enabled information sharing, offers a viable approach to meeting the UK intelligence requirements of the early 21st Century. It helps:

Improve our response time to match that of our enemies and the security threats they pose, by releasing the power of the information held across government
Enhance investment in current infrastructure and technology by circumventing the need for organisational change, updates to procurement policy or the sensitivities of where information is stored
Empower analysts to do the job with which they are charged, make decisions that help protect the UK and its citizens against current threats, and provide them with ability to meet the challenges of future and, as of yet undefined, threats So what of these undefined threats in the coming years? Can the UK have such a system (sharing multiple information streams and enhancing intelligence) in time for a UK security landmark such as 2012 and provide a capability to develop, practise, and perfect the capability well ahead of 2012? This paper suggests that as an industry, we can – at least in an embryonic but functional way. The truth is, this must be in place by April 2010 anyway. To have a cohesive and complete intelligence platform in place, that answers immediate security questions and addresses future requirements, we must ensure a sound architectural foundation is implemented in the coming months. RISC aims to achieve industry agreement on the way forward in the coming months, with the objective of working towards this common goal for an architectural backbone to be in place to meet the current intelligence challenge and that which we all face for 2012 and beyond. As Karl Fisch reminds us, shift happens and we need to shift now.

By Michael-Clayforth Carr, VEGA

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Share market instiute in indore is grown up as easy way to learn

The money you earn is partially spent and partly is saved, for meeting the future expenses. If you keep your savings idle its nominal value remains the same but real value decreases by prevailing inflation. Instead of keeping the savings idle, you part it somewhere to get the returns on the capital in future. This is called an investment. There are various avenues for investment like bank deposits, postal deposits, real estate, jewellery, paintings, life insurance, tax savings schemes likes PPF/NSC or stock market related instruments called securities like shares, debentures, bonds, etc. Often, investors who lack confidence based on the belief that they don’t have the knowledge to successfully manage their own investments in shares and thus share market institutes in Indore are dedicated to impart knowledge to individuals and professionals. When it comes to beating the market and earning exceptionally high returns, at this time people might think that if one does not have the degree or financial expertise or is not ready to invest the majority of the time and resources to read market movements, how can he earn through market. Here is when the professional analysts and their recommendations come in picture. Most of the share market institutes in Indore acknowledge the following recommendations:

1- Beware of buying shares whose price has dramatically outperformed the overall market. There’s bound to be a correction.

2- There is no way of knowing that a share is outperforming the market until sometime after the outperformance has begun by then, it may be too late.

3- The market prices shares more on future expectations than on past performance.

You make a capital gain when you sell shares for a higher price than you paid for them. When you buy or sell shares this is known as trading and those who do it frequently are known as traders. In most cases you trade shares using an agent known as stockbroker who charges fee that subsequently lowers the profit, thus share market institutes in Indore train individuals to optimise the profits and gains accordingly. When you sale share for profit you make real capital gain. If the prices of shares go up in price after you buy them and you keep holding but do not sell, you are making a theoretical capital gain, known as paper or unrealised gain. If you make a net capital gain from share trading its considered as taxable income and must be declared in your taxation return for the financial year in which the sell trade occurred, all these rules are introduced in the training provided by share market institute in Indore. A net capital gain is taxed in the same way as any other income with one exception. If you have held the shares for one year or longer only half the capital gain is considered taxable income.

Home Network Attached Storage Buyers Guide

Network attached storage (NAS) for the home is all the rage. NAS provides a way to share files, access music and movies and backup your data. To help people interested in a NAS device choose the best network attached storage for them, presents this buyers guide.

What is Network Attached Storage?

Network attached storage devices are small servers dedicated to nothing but file sharing. Instead of having to physically connect a drive to your computer, you can just plug a device into your home network that provides additional storage space. Storage prices are falling and adding 250gb, 500gb or even 1 tb (terabyte) is becoming cheap and easy.

Advantages of NAS

* It’s a simple way to add data storage to all your computers rather than just one.

* Multiple computers are able to access files anytime and do not rely on a host PC for file sharing.

* Savings on your electric bill because a power hungry computer or server need not be on 24 hours a day to share files.

* New media server features allow for centralization of your music and movie library so it can be shared by everyone on your network and even streamed to home audio and video devices.

* Provides a central place for backup storage.

Explanation of features

USB Print Server – A USB printer can be connected to the NAS device and it can share the printer over the network.

Media Server – The device can stream media to any device on the network capable of receiving it. MP3’s or movies can stream to your PC or movies can stream to a media center connected to your TV.

UPnP – Universal Plug and Play. UPnP is a dynamic zero-configuration protocol used for device interconnection. That’s quite a mouthful but what it means is that UPnP devices can talk to other UPnP devices without any intervention from you. It just works.

DLNA – Digital Living Network Alliance. DLNA is a certification built on other technologies. DLNA certification insures that certified devices will be able to talk to each other and provide a minimum level of features.

RAID – Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. RAID, in it’s many configurations, sacrifices some disk space for a level of data redundancy. RAID 1, called mirroring, makes an exact duplicate of the primary disk. If the primary disk fails then the secondary “mirrored” disk can take it’s place until you buy a replacement. RAID only helps in cases of hardware failure and is not to be mistaken for a backup strategy. If you accidentally delete a file on the primary disk the file is deleted on the mirror as well.

FTP Server – File Transfer Protocol server. Most people will not need this and will use Windows file shares instead. Some security cameras and office scanners have the ability to save to FTP servers and in those cases, and many more, this feature would come in handy.

iTunes compatible – The NAS has the ability to publish it’s media files to a computer running iTunes. The computer with iTunes would then be able to play those media files.

USB Ports – External USB storage can be added on to extend the capacity of your NAS. This can insure your NAS is never obsolete! When you run out of space you can buy an inexpensive external USB disk and plug it into your NAS. A few systems will use these for USB printer sharing or as a host for your digital camera.

Gigabit Ethernet – 1 billion bits per second transfer rate. Most wiring done in homes or offices in the last 5 years was gigabit rated but the equipment is still a bit more expensive than 100 megabit so most homes and small offices do not support this. Gigabit will get cheaper home and SOHO use so it’s still a good feature to have.

Backup Software Included – A major reason to add NAS to your network is backups. Quite a few drives come with Windows backup software to automate this important but often overlooked task.

Vista Support – Vista removed support for some older Windows file sharing technologies and some NAS drives still rely on it. If you use Vista in your home or office, make sure the NAS says it’s Vista compatible.

Mac support – Native Mac support is spotty so make sure the device is compatible with your Mac and your version of the Mac OS. Macs are able to access Windows shares so this really isn’t much of an issue.

Active Directory support – If you’re running a Windows Server or Windows Small Business Server in your office then you need this. It allows your existing network users to use the file shares on the NAS without creating new usernames and passwords. Very handy.

Gigabit Jumbo Frames – Geekspeak for faster networking.

File access via web server – This allows you to browse files on the NAS via a web browser. This would be handy if you were trying to access it from a system that did not support Windows files sharing or if you just preferred to access the files that way.

DFS support – Distributed File System. This is another Windows technical term that means that a remote shared folder can be mirrored to the NAS device. This is great for a business with a Windows Server and multiple locations.

Accessible via the Internet – A few companies have setup central servers that act as a middleman between Internet connected users and your NAS. This makes your files accessible by anyone, anywhere. Of course, everything is password protected for security. The possibilities here are endless.

Reinsurance Market Outlook to 2015 – Anjali

The report covers specific insights on the market size and segmentation, drivers and restraints, recent trends and developments and future outlook of the reinsurance industry globally and in the three regions including Europe, North America, and Asia Pacific. The report also entails the market size on the basis of net reinsurance premium written and market share of various companies at the country level. Overall, the report offers a comprehensive analysis of the entire reinsurance industry.

The global reinsurance industry was valued at USD ~ million in terms of gross premium written in 2009. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~% from 2010-2015, to reach USD ~ million in 2015. Net premium written increased from USD ~ million in 2001 to USD ~ million in 2009. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~% from 2010-2015 to reach USD ~ million by 2015.

With a market share close to ~%, Europe was the market leader on the basis of global net reinsurance premium written in 2009. North America with a share of ~% was the second largest region followed by the Asia Pacific region with a share of ~%. Rest of the World (ROW) also had a small share of ~%.

Reinsurance Industry in North America

The North America reinsurance market rebounded in 2009 and reached USD ~ million in 2009. By 2015, the market for North America is expected to reach USD ~ million.

North America reinsurance market is dominated by the US, accounting for nearly ~% of total net reinsurance premium in 2009. Bermuda is the second largest country in the region with a market share of ~% followed by Canada with ~% of the market share.

Reinsurance Industry in Europe

The reinsurance industry in Europe is the biggest market in the world. Alone, Europe accounts for more than ~% of the market. In 2010, the reinsurance industry stood at under USD ~ billion. The market is expected to grow at a steady CAGR of ~% from 2010-2015 and would reach USD ~ million in 2015.

Germany is the largest reinsurance market contributing ~% of the total net premium written in the region. The UK is speeding up in its race to chase Germany with Lloyd’s contributing the maximum to the growth in the country.

Reinsurance Industry in Asia Pacific

The reinsurance market in Asia Pacific was valued at USD ~ million in 2009, accounting for nearly ~% of the global reinsurance market. It is expected that the market will reach to USD ~ million by 2015, growing at an expected 6 year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from 2010 to 2015 of ~%.

Japan and China are the dominant markets of Asia Pacific which accounted for over ~% of the net premium written in the region in 2009. Korea is ranked third which accounted for nearly ~%, followed by India with market share of ~%.

Scope of Research

The report entails thorough analysis, drivers, restraints and market opportunities for reinsurance industry globally. The scope of the report includes:

• The market size of global reinsurance industry in terms of gross and net reinsurance premium written, 2001 to 2015

• The market size of global life and non-life reinsurance industry in terms of net reinsurance premium written, 2009 and 2015

• The market size of reinsurance industry in terms of net reinsurance premium written for all the major regions including Europe, North America and Asia Pacific, forecast to 2015

• The market size of reinsurance industry in terms of net reinsurance premium written for major countries including Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Ireland, the US, Bermuda, Japan and others, forecast to 2015

• Competitive Landscape of the top reinsurers (Munich Re, Swiss Re, Lloyd’s of London, Berkshire Hathaway, SCOR SE and others) on the basis of net reinsurance premium written along with the combined ratio globally, 2009

• Competitive Landscape of the major reinsurers in various countries such as Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Ireland, the US, Bermuda, Japan and others on the basis of net reinsurance premium written along with the combined ratio, 2009

• In-depth analysis of trends and developments, drivers and restraints for Global, Europe, North America and Asia Pacific reinsurance industry

• Market opportunities and Future Outlook for Global reinsurance industry including all the regions (Europe, North America and Asia Pacific) to 2015

Arth Business Research – Academic Help

Get detail solution to the questions listed at Arth Business Research. Ask the experts online to find solution or get help with your practice questions or study questions.Visit:

Best Mix of Capital Case

ACME Corp is a publicly traded firm listed on the NASDAQ. Its current common stock price is 10 dollars per share. This year the company currently has 75 million dollars in sales. It expects sales to grow at 3 percent a year for the next several years. The company’s current fixed costs are 50 million dollars. The federal tax rate is 40 percent. The variable costs are 22.5 million dollars this year. There are 1,000,000 shares outstanding.

The company has four capital projects that it would like to fund this year. If funded all four projects would be producing results for the firm one year from now. Project A has a life of 8 years, an initial investment of 2 million dollars, and an IRR of 12 percent. Project B has a 5 million dollar initial investment and a five-year life with an annual net cash income expected of 1,318,982 and an IRR of 10 percent. Project C has a life of 10 years, an IRR of 10 percent and a 4 million dollar initial investment. Project D is a 7-year project with an initial investment of 3 million dollars and a 9 percent IRR. There is an example in the week six part B lecture that explains how to calculate the net cash income for the three projects which do not have net cash income provided.

If the company uses debt, its investment banker suggests the following structure: 8 year maturity, equal annual principal repayments over the 8 years, and a 12 percent interest rate on outstanding principal.

The company pays no dividends on its common stock. The investment banker said to assume the firm would be able to issue common stock at the current market price, assuming the earnings per share will not be hurt in the future.

Preferred stock can be issued for a par value of 25 dollars per share and an annual dividend yield of 8 percent per share. Preferred dividends are not tax deductible to the company. Instead they are paid out of net income after taxes. Earnings per share on common stock should be calculated after preferred dividends have been paid. The numbers of shares of preferred stock are not included in the earnings per share calculation. This only includes common stock.

For this case, we are not going to require a marginal cost of capital analysis. Assume that all four projects are going to be done. The Price Earnings ratio that is calculated in problem number one should also be utilized, as appropriate in each of the five remaining problems to forecast the stock price.

Case Requirements

1. Prepare a baseline income statement and forecast for 2 years. (current year and year 1 and year 2) without the impact of the new capital program. (20 points)

2. Prepare a current and 2 year forecast which shows the impact of the capital program on the company’s income statement, prior to selecting any funding options. (20 points)

3. Prepare an income statement forecast (year 1 of forecast in item 2) that shows a 100 percent debt financing option. Please show the forecasted earnings per share and the forecasted stock price, assuming the current PE multiple remains the same. (just as in the example) (20 points)

4. Prepare an income statement forecast as in number 3, using 100 percent common stock as the funding source. (20 points)

5. Prepare an income statement forecast for year 1 (as in number 3) using a mix of debt, common stock, and preferred stock. The goal is to attempt to avoid reducing the current stock price and hopefully increasing the price. Show your assumptions clearly on your funding mix. (20 points)

6. Do the problem in number five, assuming that the 3 percent increase in sales does not occur. Instead, assume that the sales remain flat from the current year to year 1. Again, calculate the best mix of debt and equity to maximize stock prices (or at least minimize the damage to the stock price) , assuming the current PE multiple remains unchanged.

(20 points)

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Best Wireless Access Point

An access point (AP) is basically a network-capable device containing a transceiver and antenna for transmitting signals to and receiving signals from the remote clients. The access point thus provides a “point of access” to the wired network for the remote clients. The access points allow wireless clients to be quickly and easily connected to a wired LAN.

Wireless Outdoor Access Point

Generally wireless access point is designed for indoor purposes where the environments are not harsh. But deployment of the wireless access points in harsh environments should have specific design. For outdoor or harsh environments, the device must be manufactured with rugged housing and industrial-grade components to allow the devices to operate under extreme temperatures ranges for example from -30~70 degrees C and embedded with the surge protection, weather-proof, water-tight, and rust resistant.

When We Need Wireless AP

Basically in home usage you require a wireless access point if you want to share your broadband Internet connection wirelessly with many computers within the household. You can connect the wireless access point to your existing modem router to create a wireless network for internet sharing. But you must assure that your modem includes the router or firewall NAT feature. If your current modem is a pure modem without a NAT firewall feature, you need a wireless router for Internet sharing. Unless there will be one client computer only that can connect to the internet.

In business networks when you require providing wireless connection to areas where running network cables is impossible, you can use the wireless access point for wireless access to the network. Or when you require providing mobile devices wirelessly access the network, you can create hotspots with security segregation. Or in harsh plant environments you can create point-to-point, point-to-multi point, or mesh networks, you require wireless outdoor access points.

Which Best Wireless Access Point

Technology makes life easier. Manufacturers develop new better technology with introduction of new products with better performance. Choosing the best wireless access point is a moving target because there will always come new introduction of new products with better technology and innovation. For now how to choose the best wireless access point you should examine the manufacturer specs to include the following features:

Multifunction Modes

The wireless access point should be able to work with different operational modes: Access point, Repeater, Network Bridge, and wireless Client mode. In the Wireless Access Point Mode, the device allows for any existing wired network to go wireless by simply attaching the device using the Ethernet cable to an open port in your router or switch.

In the Wireless Ethernet Bridge Mode or Client mode, the device enables any wired Ethernet-ready device to connect to your existing wireless network. Connect your PC, notebook, printer, network camera, or even an entire wired network to the AP device via a Switch and establish a wireless connection to your wireless network. In repeater mode, you can add other AP devices to extend the wireless network without the need to run backbone cables.

WDS Support

Best wireless access point should support the Wireless Distribution System (WDS). WDS allows a wireless network to be expanded using multiple access points without the need for a wired backbone to link them, as is traditionally required.

WDS allows you to build wireless infrastructure completely because the network equipment no longer has to be connected to a wired LAN. The WDS features you can create large wireless networks by linking several wireless APs with WDS links. WDS is normally used in large, open areas where pulling wires is cost prohibitive, restricted or physically impossible.

Wireless N

Best wireless access point should be powered by new wireless technology standards – the wireless 802.11n. 802.11n standard is the latest and fastest wireless technology available in the market today. With the wireless N and MIMO technology, the AP device provides the speeds of up to 300 Mbps or faster and longer distance coverage.

When you use high-intensive bandwidth applications such as High Definition Video streaming and voice, you should also consider the dual-band version of both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands.

Advanced Security Features

The best wireless access points should support advanced security features including latest industrial wireless security Wireless Protected Access (WPA/WPA2), MAC filter and SSID Broadcast Control. For deployment in the corporate networks, the AP should support advanced wireless protection (EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, and PEAP), and also support RADIUS authentication. And for easiness of the wireless security connection, the AP should also support the Wireless Protected Setup (WPS) for effortless installation.

Online Share Trading

In recent times, online trading has become one of the main approaches of trading. It provides an opportunity to invest online and eliminate time hassles by placing orders to buy and sell through internet. You can invest a certain amount of money without speaking with a broker or leaving the comfort of your home. Whatever investment strategy you imbibe, it will yield notable benefits when implemented online.

Online Share trading in India is gaining popularity due to various reasons, including paperless transaction, cost-effectiveness, management of own stock portfolios, 24/7 access of investors’ account, real time investment monitoring, etc.

In the investment arena, online share trading plays a vital role in delivering value. It is fast, convenient and absolutely simple. Through online share trading, you have complete authority to take trading decisions. In true sense, it provides unmatched trade efficiency to a trader. In the investment arena, online share trading plays a vital role in delivering value. It is fast, convenient and absolutely simple. Through online share trading, you have complete authority to take trading decisions. In true sense, it provides unmatched trade efficiency to a trader.

Benefits of Online Share Trading:

• It facilitates trade on a click of the mouse. Through this concept of trading, traders are allowed to trade virtually, having no direct broker communication.

• It enables the trader to buy and sell shares anytime anywhere where there is internet access. Even during the non-market hours, you can place a buy/sell order by specifying your order value. Online share trading is cheaper and more convenient.

• It offers greater investment control.

• It is the best method for an investment review. As an investor, you can monitor investments in real time.

Nowadays, many online brokerages are engaged in offering advanced interfaces through which the investors are able to take a look on how their money is performing throughout a day. You can see any gains or losses in real time through log in your computer or phone. Many brokerages have also developed a wide range of tools to convey their traders not only finance news but also concrete knowledge about analytic platforms and research reports.

Many Indian banks also get integrated with share trading system because of various merits involved. In this system, you are required to send your money to the bank account and once you have the money in the account it can be immediately made available for purchase of shares.