Do Not Pay for High Speed Local Internet Speeds You Will Never Use

I have been watching all the commercial on TV for fast Internet service. All of the companies have a hook. I like the one that shows a family in a nice new modern house with all white furniture and carpeting. They are sitting around in their brand name clothes using the latest electronics watching videos and playing games. The ad implies how happy they are to have their new super fast Internet service. Well, my wife and kids along with me have a local Internet service that is a lot cheaper and just as effective.

We do not have white furniture and carpeting, and we buy a lot of our clothes from department stores. However, we do need fast Internet service. The kids are really into photography, videography and other things that take up a lot of bandwidth. I access and download large data files from work when I am telecommuting. None of us has any problems with our local Internet service speeds. Continue reading “Do Not Pay for High Speed Local Internet Speeds You Will Never Use”

Understanding the Share Market And Effectivity of Share Tips

Share market is a place where fortune is made and demolished everyday. Some may gain their fortune and some other may loose to depths. This market is about numbers and figures. Being a virtual space to trade stocks of various companies, it has gathered huge attention of many in recent times.
Share market is a place where fortune is made and demolished everyday. Some may gain their fortune and some other may loose to depths. This market is about numbers and figures. Being a virtual space to trade stocks of various companies, it has gathered huge attention of many in recent times.

To start trading on a share market you need a platform along with a trading account from various banks. This platform is provided by many share brokers or agents. Shares of various companies are sold and purchased on daily basis by individuals, companies or groups. While talking about shares, these are basic units of company stock value, which any listed company can put-forth for common people to share upon. A listed company is a company that has been enrolled to sell or purchase its stocks over an open common platform (Stock Market).

Although share market is not a new concept, the operations of share market have seen enormous technological advancements. With introduction of interment and personalized gadgets like cell phones share trading has witnessed dramatic shifts. It’s now possible from your desk to trade upon shares with an interface.

By nature, share market is extremely volatile. With abundance of purchases and sales every minute, the market value of shares keeps on changing gradients. For many, share market is a fortune maker. The diversity and volatile nature of shares accounts for big returns on investments.

For many amateur and newcomer share market poses extreme risk. Without basic understanding of shares, different terminology associated with share trading and share performance; any person can be fooled to loose his investments. Share Market is about investments and disinvestments. To be a successful trader you need to earn profit with buying and selling of shares on a regular basis. Share Markets are fortune makers many a times. With your proficiency in trading shares can develop your fortune over short span of time. The basics are just to understand the favoring trends. By operating in a trendy fashion you win the game to earn your profit.

Nowadays there are plenty of opportunities available for individuals to go for share trading. People are encouraged to make their presence on this glossy platform. But, understanding the basics are still out of scope for many. With advancement of technology, you have abundance of resources for gathering the concepts of share trading. Information spreading over World Wide Web are huge. All you need is some intrinsic research to prove your competency.

Being an amateur share trader you may associate yourself with any broking firm. You might ask for tips from experts. The expert advices and share tips can guide you in a better way for trading profit on your shares. Many magnificent web portals are available online for meager sum of membership fees. They make you understand the basicsBusiness Management Articles, make you to practice over a virtual mock stock exchange and offer you practically effective share tips to help you out to earn handsome. After all when you earn profit the broker firms gain their commission as profit. With some research online you can always find someone reliable to help you out!

Metabolomics Market Value Share, Supply Demand, share and Value Chain 2016-2020

North America held 40% share in global market and dominated the metabolomics market in 2015.This region remains competitive with the presence of a large number of vendors. Europe was the second largest market with over 30% share of the total share in the same year. Asia Pacific is expected to witness rapid growth in the years to come.
Zion Research has published a new report titled “Metabolomics Market by Technology (Mass Spectrometry, Capillary Electrophoresis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy), Indication (Cardiology and Oncology) for Drug Discovery, Biomarker and Nutrigenomics : Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 – 2021”. According to the report, the global demand for metabolomics was valued at over USD 675.0 million in 2015 and it is expected to reach above USD 2,500.0 million in 2021, growing at a CAGR of above 25.0% between 2016 and 2021.

Metabolites are substances or compounds found in the cell, they are intermediate products catalyzed by enzymes in the metabolism process. Signaling molecules, hormones, metabolic intermediates and secondary metabolites are some of the types of metabolites. Metabolism is the process to maintain living state of cell. Metabolism can be either anabolism or catabolism. Anabolism is the process in which certain compounds are synthesized that is required for cells to process, while breakdown of molecules for releasing energy is the catabolism. Metabolome is total set of metabolites present in a single organism. Metabolomics is study of chemical reactions related to metabolites and a field of analytical biochemistry. Metabolomics is used to compute and recognize the metabolites present in the cell via analytical technologies together with multi variant and statistical method for data interpretation.

Browse the full “Metabolomics Market by Technology (Mass Spectrometry, Capillary Electrophoresis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy), Indication (Cardiology and Oncology) for Drug Discovery, Biomarker and Nutrigenomics: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Segment, Trends and Forecast, 2015 – 2021”

Increasing scope of toxicological studies, clinical trials, rise in awareness for health and government and institution funds for research is expected to drive the demand for the metabolomics market. Lack of adoption of metabolomics technology and complexity of the process can hamper the metabolomics market. Increasing research and development expenditure and existing demand from emerging economies and is likely to open new market avenues in the near future.

The metabolomics market is segmented on the basis of technology, indication, application and region. Mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are some of the major segments based on technology. High performance liquid chromatography was largest technology segment for metabolomics market. Drug discovery, biomarker and nutrigenomics are some of the key application markets for metabolomics. Drug discovery emerged as dominating segment due to its significant role in optimization, prioritization and drug target validation and identification for research. Cardiology and oncology are the indication for metabolomics.

Key players in global metabolomics market include Danaher Corporation, Bruker Corporation, Waters Corporation, Metabolon, Inc., Agilent Technologies, Thermo Fisher Scientific and Shimadzu Corporation among others.

Calculating Net Asset Value

Net asset value or NAV is a most common term used to describe the value of a mutual fund. But, many mutual fund investors do not exactly understand the real meaning of the term. However, before investing in a mutual fund, it is very important to know the way in which a mutual fund’s NAV is calculated.

Calculating the net asset value of a mutual fund is really simple. When the current market value of the fund’s net assets on that particular day are divided by the number of outstanding shares, the resultant value is the NAV. The total net assets of a mutual fund include all the securities held by the fund minus any liabilities. Net asset value per share has to be calculated daily. Illustrated below is a simple example to understand the NAV calculation. If the total value of assets in a fund is equal to $5 million and the fund has one million shares in the portfolio, then the NAV or the price per each share is $50.00. Net asset value can also be simply described as the price at which shares may be purchased or sold at a particular time.

According to financial experts, NAV is never a right index to judge the performance of a mutual fund. This is because the NAV is highly influenced by the fund distributions made by the fund manager. As per law, every mutual fund has to distribute its realized net gains to the investors in the form of dividends. Whenever any dividend is distributed, the value of the NAV declines on a per-share basis. In many cases, investors prefer to reinvest the dividends or fund distributions rather than receiving cash. As a result of this option, investors can obtain additional shares using those distributions. And also, there would be no decrease in the total value of the fund investment, even though the NAV declines.

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Net Meeting Tutorial

Net Meeting Tutorial provides all the necessary information on Net Meeting, which is a real time conferencing tool using Internet. Chat, file transfer, whiteboard, video and audio conferencing, program sharing, remote desktop sharing and advance calling are some of the important features. Pentium processor of 90 MHz or higher, 16 MB RAM, Internet Explorer 4.01 or later, 28,800 bps or faster modem, sound and video card and PC camera are the minimum requirements.

Net Meeting can be downloaded from Microsoft site or from other providers. Windows XP and 2000 has Net Meeting along with it. Once you download, the first screen gives introduction and the next screen asks for relevant personal information. The next dialog box allows you to enter directory server. The next few dialog boxes allow you to adapt your PC for the software requirements and checks your video and audio cards and other settings.

Once Net Meeting is installed you can call a person if the person is online. To place a call, click the telephone button. To know whether a contact is in the same directory; type the person’s e-mail address. If your contact is in the same directory, the person will be listed in the directory. Once the contact is in the same directory, you can invite the person for chat. For this you need to click the chat button and can send messages from the dialog box. When you click chat, audio conferencing facility will automatically start to function if the necessary equipments are in place. If you have camera, click star video button to transfer images. The audio and screen size can be adjusted. Through “options” under “tools,” you can adjust the other settings. By clicking “source” button, you can adjust camera settings. Using whiteboard, you can draw lines, add color, edit text and save for future sessions.

To share an application all the users needs a copy of the application program installed. Click “sharing” and pop-up window will show the files in use and you can select the file for sharing. For file transfer, after clicking on “file transfer,” you will get a pop-up with “add files” option. You can select the files you want to transfer and can send to any number of contacts.

How To Use Net Meeting

The first step to use Net Meeting is to download and install Net Meeting from Microsoft or the other providers. Net Meeting is included in Windows 2000. Those using Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, and Windows NT 4.0 needs to download it.

Once you have installed Net Meeting you can start chatting or transferring files with added contacts. If you do not have contacts you can call someone. Microsoft Internet Diary, which has Internet Locator Server (ILS), is the ideal choice to find friends. To find an address in the directory, first click “find someone in a directory.” In the select a “directory field” you can select the directory you like. Then, you can provide information about the person you want to call. It can be the person’s name, e-mail address or location. Once you have submitted this information, it will display contents matching your needs. The history list is another option to invite people. It contains information about people who have invited you earlier.

To begin chatting in Net Meeting click chat button. In “message,” enter the message you want to send. Then select the person whom you want to send message from your added contacts. If you want to send to all your added contacts click all names. After this, click the send message button. If you want to receive video, call someone from your list whose video you want to see. Then go to “tools” and point on “video” and click “receive.” If you want to share your image, call someone and click “start video” in the “tools” menu. Similarly, to send video you can click the “tools” menu and point to “video” and click on “send.” Once the video has started the button transforms to “stop video.” To stop click on it.

For file transfer, click “transfer files.” On “file transfer” dialog box click “add file” and select the file you want to send. The next process is similar to chat. Click on the person or persons you want to send file. Click on the “send file” once you have made your selection. To share files, click the “share program” button and in the “sharing” dialog box select the program you want to share.

Health Insurance Money Saving Strategies – How Combining Health Insurance Saves Money

How does anyone get the best value with health insurance? Answer: Combine Health Insurance Plans. To explore the principles at work, many people should understand how combining health insurance is a sound solution to a serious problem. It may appear obvious that combining insurance improves coverage, but few people truly understand how combining plans leads to thousands of dollars in potential savings over time. With so many health insurance plans available and over 1 million insurance agents actively licensed today, it leads one to question why no one knows how combining plans saves money.

Today, too many people are learning the hard way that they are under-insured when it comes to health insurance. This happens because competitive health insurance agents bid lower and lower amounts in an inflated market, leading to more gaps in coverage that less experienced agents often fail to comprehend well enough to explain. There is a simple truth to understand about the rising costs of health care.

Health Care Costs Will Continue to Rise When No Regulation is in Place

Hospitalvictims.org conducted research on hospital charges nationwide. These charges were compared to those of Johns Hopkins Hospitals, one of the most respected health care institutions in the nation. What were the results?

The vast majority of hospital charges average between 300% and 400% above the institutions’ costs for treatment. Johns Hopkins Hospital’s average charges are 117% above its costs. For every $1 charged, Johns Hopkins pays $0.85, or earns a profit of $0.25 for every dollar charged.

The average U.S. hospital pays $0.27 for every dollar it charges. The average hospital is paying $25 Million in costs while charging $95 Million to patients. The average profit margin is around $70 Million annually. The greatest of these charges are credited to surgical supplies and the administration of anesthesia.

In an ever-inflating health care industry, a solution does exist. While politicians continue making promises to solve the health care crisis, individuals and families continue to expect more than the insurance market can bear. But many self-employed individuals and families can find comfort in knowing they can do something to secure assets by simply doing the legwork and becoming informed about health insurance.

The solution is based on a very simple principle of insurance. Insurance is an Agreement to Share the Financial Risk of Loss Between Individuals and Companies

This basic concept is more important for individuals to understand now than ever. Health insurance companies, like individuals, cannot afford the rising costs of health care on their own today. Many health insurance companies have developed their focus to specific areas where they can offer more competitive coverage at very affordable prices. This is where people can save significant amounts of money by adjusting to this trend. It is no longer the case that a single health plan can offer full, comprehensive coverage at a competitive price because health care costs are out of control.

Today it takes multiple health plans from multiple health insurance companies to have the best coverage at the lowest price. This follows the trends associated with investing in the economy. One creates greater risk for their financial performance in the market by investing all funds in one stock or trade. The safest, most secure investment is a diversified portfolio. Health insurance is no different today.

Why You Do Not Know

Is it surprising to learn that many insurance professionals have no idea how to give individuals and families the best coverage and the greatest savings on health insurance? The majority of health insurance agents today are captive to one company. This means that most insurance agents are only trained to present the products of the health insurance company they represent.

Independent agents are less restricted to one plan, but a large number of these professionals still have limited access to the competitive plans available to individuals and families. While this explanation is complicated, the simple answer is that most agencies earn the majority of their profits from the volume of product sales per company, not the volume of sales overall. Some general agency contracts offer higher incentives to the agency, which can influence what products agencies offer.

So, it comes down to the individual shopping for health insurance to find the policies that create the greatest coverage and savings.

A Well-Structured Health Insurance Portfolio is the Key to Having the Best Coverage for the Lowest Price

Combining health insurance plans is the best way to improve coverage save money on health insurance long term. Health Insurance Money Saving Strategies is a 10-week campaign to spread the word to self-employed individuals and their families looking for private health insurance. A well-structured Health Insurance Portfolio is the best way for people to protect their assets and be comfortable knowing their insurance adequately protects them from the worst medical situations. The benefit is knowing that this type of approach to health insurance saves people money.

Share Videos On Twitter

Everyone loves to share videos online whether they recorded them on their own or found them on the web. Twitter users especially love to do their sharing via mobile phone. Anyone can easily share videos on Twitter with the help of some great tools that work from their computers or mobile phones.

Without the help of Twitter apps, you can tweet the URL to a video, but this option has its limitations. There are numerous Twitter tools that help you share videos easily and efficiently and listed below are some of our favorites.

UberTwitter is an application created exclusively for BlackBerry users to embed videos within tweets as well as upload photos, update GoggleTalk, and tweet your location. No GPS is required for the location feature.

Twibble is a Twitter tool that works with any smartphone that supports Java. The program connects with Twitpic and Mobypicture so users can easily share videos and pictures. Twibble also includes notifications for new tweets, full screen mode and provides SSL support for security.

TwitLens is another application that you can use to upload videos. The memory limit per video upload is currently 50 MB, and videos or pictures can be posted on Twitter via mobile phone as well as from computers.

Another great Twitter tool for video sharing is Twixxer. Picture and video thumbnails appear embedded on the user’s tweets with a short URL to full-sized versions of the media. YouTube or Viddler videos can be viewed within the Twitter stream for anyone who has the app installed, so viewers do not have to leave your page.

For those who want to create their own videos and share them on Twitter, Screenr is an app that can help. It is an online recorder you can use to create your own videos and share them without downloading anything. Users can create screencasts from their MAC or PC and viewers can watch online from virtually any internet-ready device.

Magnify.net allows users to publish videos that they find online or create themselves. You can create playlists, add comments, change the design, and more. You can integrate the videos on your website and tweet the URL. You can also find relevant videos created by other users to build a video community.

TwitC is a great Twitter tool that enables users to embed or post links to all types of files. With this application you can search, comment, view, rate, mark as favorite, and share files not only on Twitter, but also on Foursquare and Facebook. It works great for video and file sharing and you can link to YouTube, Hulu, Flickr, and more.

Whether you like to share videos on the go from your cell phone or spend time on your computer or iPad sharing videos, there are definitely some great Twitter tools out there that are easy to use and free of charge. With one or two of these seven applications, you will be able to share that funny clip you saw on YouTube or upload your own homemade video for all of your Twitter followers to enjoy.

Discover the many different Twitter applications available at My Twitter Toolbox and learn more about how to use Twitter for better productivity- visit us today at [http://MyTwitterToolbox.com]

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/David_Perdew/7102

Net-Centric Air Traffic Management System Explained

Net-centric, in its most common definition, refers to “participation as a part of a continuously evolving, complex community of people, devices, information and services interconnected by a communications network to optimise resource management and provide superior information on events and conditions needed to empower decision makers.” It will be clear from the definition that “net-centric” does not refer to a network as such. It is a term that covers all elements constituting the environment referred to as “net-centric”.

Exchanges between members of the community are based not on cumbersome individual interfaces and point to point connections but a flexible network paradigm that is never a hindrance to the evolution of the net-centric community. Net-centricity promotes a “many-to-many” exchange of data, enabling a multiplicity of users and applications to make use of the same data which in itself extends way beyond the traditional, predefined and package oriented data set while still being standardised sufficiently to ensure global interoperability. The aim of a net-centric system is to make all data visible, available and usable, when needed and where needed, to accelerate and improve the decision making process.

In a net-centric environment, unanticipated but authorised users can find and use data more quickly. The net-centric environment is populated with all data on a “post and share before processing” basis enabling authorised users and applications to access data without wait time for processing, exploitation and dissemination. This approach also enables vendors to develop value added services, tailored to specific needs but still based on the shared data.

In the context of Air Traffic Management (ATM), the data to be provided is that concerning the state (past, present and future) of the ATM Network. Participants in this complex community created by the net-centric concept can make use of a vastly enlarged scope of acceptable data sources and data types (aircraft platforms, airspace user systems, etc.) while their own data also reaches the community on a level never previously achieved.

How are decisions different in a net-centric environment?

Information sharing and the end-user applications it enables is the most beneficial enabler of collaborative decision making. The more complete the information that is being shared and the more thorough its accessibility to the community involved, the higher the benefit potential. In a traditional environment, decisions are often arbitrary and the effects of the decisions are not completely transparent to the partners involved. Information sharing on a limited scale (as is the case in the mainly local information sharing hitherto implemented) results in a substantial improvement in the quality of decisions but this is mainly local and improvements in the overall ATM Network are consequential rather than direct.

If the ATM Network is built using the net-centric approach, decisions are empowered on the basis of information available in the totality of the net-centric environment and interaction among members of the community, irrespective of their role or location, can be based on need rather than feasibility.

Since awareness of the state (past, present or future) of the ATM Network is not limited by lack of involvement of any part as such, finding out the likely or actual consequences of decisions is facilitated, providing an important feed-back loop that further improves the quality of decisions on all levels.

Looking at things from the collaborative decision making (CDM) perspective, it is important to realise that net-centricity is not something created for the sole purpose of making CDM better. Net-centricity is a feature of the complete ATM system design, providing different benefits to different aspects of air traffic management operations. It is when collaboration in decision making exploits also the facilities made possible by the overall net-centric ATM Network, that the superior quality of decisions becomes truly visible.

The concept of services

In traditional system design, information technology (IT) was often driving developments and the functionality being provided in some cases became a limitation on the business it was meant to support. Service orientation is the necessary step to separate the business processes from the IT processes and to enable business considerations to drive the underlying IT requirements. Aligning IT to the business rather than the other way round improves business agility and efficiency.

“Service” in this context is defined as “the delivery of a capability in line with published characteristics, including policies.” This refers to the ATM services required and not the underlying (technical) supporting services and physical assets that need to be deployed. In other words, service refers to the business services and not the information technology services.

Well designed business services must exhibit a number of characteristics that describe the service being offered sufficiently well for the service consumer(s) to clearly understand the service and hence to want to make use them.

On the business level, contracts and service level agreements that put the service in the proper context are very important as they cover not only the function(s) that will be performed but also the non-functional terms and conditions to which the consumer and provider have agreed.

There are several business processes that can be identified in the context of air traffic management. Some are related to the aircraft themselves (e.g. turn-round), others concern the passengers and their baggage. These and all other business processes require specific services to progress and complete in accordance with the business objectives of the process owner. Cleaning and refuelling of the aircraft, passenger check-in, security checking, etc. are just a few examples of the business services that need to be provided in order to achieve the objective, in this case a timely and safe departure.

When viewed on an enterprise level, a given service once defined is often reusable across the enterprise where identical or similar processes are found, resulting in a major potential for cost saving.

The services so defined will then set the requirements for the underlying IT support.

The effects of net-centric integration

The term “integration” is often associated with “centralisation” and the elimination/rationalisation of facilities. While from an economic perspective integration may indeed mean all of the above, net-centric integration is about empowering better decision making through the creation of the complex, networked community of people, devices, information and services that generate benefits to all members of the community without necessarily changing the mapping (nature, number and location) of the community members.

At the same time, net-centric integration enables superior business agility and flexibility so that community members may evolve and change (drop out or new ones come in) in response to the changing needs of the users of the system concerned.

In the net-centric context it is not integration as such that changes the enterprise landscape. Such changes, if any, are the result of the economic imperatives that need to be met and which can now be met based on the improved business agility.

The end-user aspects of net-centric operations

One of the less understood aspects of traditional decision making is that it is not really possible to realise when decisions are based on less then full and/or correct information. The garbage in/garbage out principle applies also to the decision making process. At the same time, the effects of less than good decisions may not be immediately visible. In many cases, poor decisions will affect the efficiency of the overall operation without the negative effects even being traceable to individual decisions. So, while everyone may be doing their very best, the result may still be far short of the quality that would be otherwise achievable.

When the scope and quality of data upon which decisions are based is expanded and improved, the quality of decisions improves almost automatically. The decision makers will notice the expanded possibilities and ultimately the success of the enterprise will also improve in a visible way.

When net-centric operations are introduced, the potential for improvement and the options for achieving the improvement multiply considerably. In the more restricted environment, end-users will have been asking for more information and tools to make using data easier. More often than not, their wish went unfulfilled due to lack of data and/or poor quality and the consequent poor performance of the tools that may have been created. The shared environment under net-centric operations brings all the data anyone may ever wish to have. The services are defined on the basis of the business needs and will also support the tools end-users need to properly interact with net-centric environment, integrating into a coherent whole their individual decision making processes.

In a way a well implemented net-centric system is transparent to the end-users. In particular, they do not need to concern themselves with the location of data they require or the quality thereof. Information management, that is part of the net-centric environment, takes care of finding the information needed and also its quality assurance.

End-user applications are the most visible part of net-centric operations and they can be built to satisfy end-user needs in respect of any process that needs to be handled.

In the ATM context, vastly improved controller decision making tools, safety nets and trajectory calculation are only a few examples of the possible benefits.
The institutional implications of net-centric operations

International air navigation is by definition a highly regulated environment and regulations provide some of the most important pillars of both safety and interoperability. The net-centric and service oriented future ATM environment possesses a number of aspects which by themselves provide powerful drivers for proper regulation. It is important to note that the institutional issues associated with net-centric operations are wider than just CDM and hence early efforts to address the CDM related aspects will benefit the whole of the ATM enterprise. The items of particular relevance are summarised below:

o Wide scope of information contributors – The information needs of the future ATM Network, including the scope of that information, will result in a multitude of new information sources/contributors and/or new types of information being obtained from various information sources.

o Air and ground integration – In the traditional ATM set-up, the coupling between ground and airborne systems are normally very loose or non-existent. Once the net-centric ATM Network is realised and aircraft become nodes on the network, a completely new regulatory-target regime is created in the form of the integrated air/ground ATM elements.

o Information sharing – The value of using shared information is one of the main reasons why System Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the future net-centric ATM environment is being defined. There are however legitimate requirements for protecting some information in one or more of several ways, including de-identification of the source, limiting access, etc.

o Integration of diverse airspace use activities – Airspace is used for various purposes and civil aviation is just one of those. Specific military usage (not all of which involves aircraft operations) as well as various civilian projects and missions employ information that is even more sensitive than the normal business or security sensitive information categories. Their proper protection is essential if the military and other operators generating such sensitive information are to be integrated into the overall ATM process. This aspect poses a specific challenge since not only is the information possibly in a military/State security domain but the regulatory domains may also be nested in different organisations that need to be brought together for and under the SWIM umbrella.

o Disappearance of the difference between voice and data – In the mid- to longer time frames, the expected traffic levels will make the move to almost exclusive use of digital link communications inevitable. This does not mean the disappearance of voice communications on the end-user level. However, a reliable communications system that can serve the voice and data needs of the future ATM environment is by definition digital and hence even voice messages will be transferred via digital means. Hence a convergence of the regulatory regimes for voice and data communications will be inevitable.

o Global interoperability – Aeronautical information has always been global in nature but the strongly limited access and product oriented philosophy has contained the issues of global interoperability. The net-centric approach of the new ATM environment will create large islands of shared information which must however be able to interoperate between each other as well as with legacy environments, constituting a new, global need for proper regulatory regimes.

o Common information pipes for passenger and operational communications – In the traditional analogue environment, aviation has enjoyed dedicated communications means and this tradition was carried over to a certain extent also into the new digital communications technologies. The dedicated “pipe” in air/ground communications is certainly a reality today but the same cannot be said of the ground-ground communications links. The early point to point connections have been replaced in most applications by leased lines which, for substantial segments, are in fact shared with other, often not aviation, users. The drivers behind this change are obviously cost effectiveness considerations. Although early attempts to provide in-flight passenger connectivity have not proved the commercial success many had forecast, it is already visible that in the not too distant future, personal communications needs will evolve to the point where people will demand uninterrupted connectivity even on relatively short flights. Since such demands will always fetch a premium price, it stands to reason that combining the operational and passenger connectivity needs onto a single air/ground pipe could be commercially attractive. While the technology to do this safely will certainly be available, the regulatory aspects will have to be explored in time to ensure that the actual solutions used meet all the safety and other requirements.

o The value of information – Information is a valuable commodity and in the competitive environment of aviation this commodity is of course sought after by many partners, including others than only aircraft operators or airports. The essential safety contribution of information in air traffic management creates an especially complicated web of relationships, some commercial some not, some State obligations some voluntary, and so on that need to be properly regulated with a view to ensuring cost recovery while not discouraging information use.

o Cost effectiveness – Although not always thought of as a driver for regulation, a proper regulatory environment will favour cost-effective, user oriented solutions.

o Training and personnel licensing – The information sharing environment of SWIM will require experts who are conversant not only with the requirements of air traffic management and aircraft operations but also the information technology aspects of the new approach to managing information. This has implications in the construction and approval of training syllabuses, examination fulfilment criteria as well as the qualification requirements. The need for refresher/recurrent training also grows and needs to be part of the overall regulatory regime.

o Standardisation – System wide sharing of information in a net-centric environment requires that the data be the subject of proper standardisation on all levels. This is the key to achieving global interoperability in the technical as well as the service/operational sense. The development and use of the necessary standards can only be realised under a proper regulatory regime.
All the above aspects imply the creation of a regulatory regime that is aligned with the specific needs of a net-centric operation and which is able to regulate for safety and proper performance, including economic performance, appropriate for the new digital environment. Trying to apply traditional methods of regulation without taking the new realities into account is counter productive and must be avoided. This is an important message for both the regulators and the regulated.

The aspects of regulation to be considered include:

o Safety
o Security
o Information interoperability
o Service level interoperability
o Physical interoperability
o Economics
In terms of who should be regulated, thought should be given to at least:

o The State as data provider
o Licensed providers of services, including network services
o Licensed data sources
o Licensed providers of end-user applications
o User credentials and trusted users

It is important to answer also the question: who should be the regulator? This must be agreed in terms of:

o International rules and global oversight
o Licensing rules and global oversight
The types of regulatory activities that need to be put in place concern mainly compliance verification and certification; quality maintenance; and enforcement and penalties.

As mentioned already, the above institutional aspects concern more than just CDM, however, for CDM and in particular information sharing to work in the net-centric environment, they need to be addressed as a prerequisite of implementation.
The technical implications of net-centric operations

On the conceptual level, net-centric operations mean the sharing of superior quality information as part of a community and acting on that information to improve decisions for the benefit of the individual as well as for the network (the networked community). Obviously, this type of operation must be enabled by a proper technical infrastructure.

This technical infrastructure is often thought of as a network with the required band-width and reliability; it is true that the replacement of the one-to-one connections that characterise legacy systems with the many-to-many relationships of the net-centric environment does require a powerful network that fully meets all the quality requirements, but there is much more to net-centricity than this.

The management of the shared data pool, including currency, access rights, quality control, etc. brings in a layer of technical requirements that sit higher than the network as such.

If we then define ‘information’ as ‘data put in context’ it is easy to see that creating the information from the shared data constitutes yet another layer of required technical solutions. These are often referred to as intelligent end-user applications. Tools which end-users can call upon to perform tasks they need for successfully completing their missions. End-users may be pilots, air traffic controllers, flight dispatchers, handling agents or any other person or system with a need for the shared information. In all cases, the end-user applications collect and collate the data needed to create the information required. This then may be a synthetic display of the airport on an EFB, a trajectory on a what-if tool display or a list of arrivals for the taxi company and so on.

End-user applications are scalable to fit, both in functionality and cost, the specific needs of the end-user for whom they are created. This scalability enables the end-user applications to run on different networked devices from simple PDAs through airlines systems to on-board equipment.

It shall be noted that one of the most important characteristics of a net-centric environment that technical solutions must support is that the requirements against equipment are driven by the services/functionality they must provide and NOT by their actual location in the network. As an example, the integrity of the data used to build a trajectory and the quality of the application used to manipulate/interact with the trajectory will depend on the use that will be made of the trajectory and not per se on whether the application is running on the ground or in an aircraft.

This adaptability of the technical solutions to the actual needs (rather than location in the network) leads to important cost saving opportunities.

Net-centricity – the essence of the future

The net-centric approach to system design is not a silver bullet. It is just the environment that enables properly managed information to be exploited to the full and provide the enterprise with the agility it needs to constantly adapt to the changing world for the benefit of the customers and the enterprise itself.

It is the end-user applications built to work in the net-centric environment that come closest to being the silver bullets…

Please visit my blog at http://www.roger-wilco.net! You will find many more aviation stories and other interesting items there.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Steve_Zerkowitz/539175

Stock Price Evaluation: Earnings Per Share and Diluted Earnings Per Share

There are many ways for investors to evaluate company profitability and stock prices. In fact, it is suggested by many advisors and analysts that multiple financial measures be used to fully understand a company’s existing and potential performance that could lead to an increase in dividend payouts and returns from an increase in stock price. Two of these important measures are the earnings per share (EPS) and diluted earnings per share. Both are a ratio that reflect a corporation’s net income and allow investor’s a simplified way to compare the stock price and performance of different companies.

Earnings per share and diluted earnings per share are calculated ratios of a company’s net income to the number of common stock shares outstanding. As stated above, the EPS figures reflect a company’s profitability, so a higher EPS can indicate higher net income. When comparing two or more stocks, the EPS allows for a basic comparison of the companies’ earning potential. For example, if someone were reviewing two companies in the same industry and sees that Company A has an EPS of $5.00 and Company B has an EPS of $10.00, it would be clear that Company B is simply earning more money per share than Company A. This is not to say that Company B is actually more profitable, it could simply have less issued shares than Company A.

Diluted earnings per share is calculated the same way as basic EPS in relation to the number of shares outstanding, however, the math used for the amount of shares outstanding is taken a step further. Under diluted earnings per share, any issued long-term debt (bonds/stock options) or convertible preferred stocks must be accounted for in the amount of shares outstanding. This causes diluted earnings per share to be less than basic EPS in dollar amount, but not necessarily less important or a reflection that the company stock is over valued. Actually, some investors or analysts prefer to base investing decisions from the diluted EPS figure since it reflects an entity’s use of various stock options and shows a worse case scenario for pricing if all options were to be put into place.

Sometimes both basic EPS and diluted EPS will be taken a step further to evaluate an entity’s future performance. These predicted calculations will use expected future net income in order to show a possible increase or decrease in EPS. These figures are another matrix that investors can use to easily compare and contrast a company’s performance from today to a point in time in the future, usually one fiscal year. The hope is that investors can make easy value determinations of their stocks based on the expected future earnings by using simplified ratio matrices.

Some may argue that EPS is the most important figure available in evaluating a company and their stock price. At the end of the day, investors simply want to know how much money the companies they have invested in are earning, and the EPS figures put that in an up-front and easy to understand number. The EPS is used directly to calculate a stock’s price/earnings (P/E) ratio. While the P/E ratio is another very important evaluation number, it would require it’s own article for full explanation, the EPS is a factor in calculating the P/E ratio so therefore some analysts rank the EPS higher in importance. The P/E ratio tells an investor how much they are paying for $1.00 in company earnings by purchasing the stock. The use of EPS in this ratio ties them together in the evaluation of a company’s net income and determination of how expensive a share price truly is.

The basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share figures are just two of multiple numbers, figures, and matrices used in determining the true value of a company, its share price, and potential return on one’s investment. As stated before, the EPS should not be the only factor used to finalize an investment decision, but it may be the most important. The EPS may be the most direct way to answer the question of how much a company makes and what that entity is worth.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Robert_Gessner_Jr/1692877