Internet Protocol Version Four

Internet Protocol:- Communication between hosts can happen only if they can identify each other on the network. In a single collision domain (where every packet sent on the segment by one host is heard by every other host) hosts can communicate directly via MAC address.MAC address is a factory coded 48-bits hardware address which can also uniquely identify a host. But if a host wants to communicate with a remote host, i.e. not in the same segment or logically not connected, then some means of addressing is required to identify the remote host uniquely. A logical address is given to all hosts connected to the Internet and this logical address is called Internet Protocol Address.

The network layer is responsible for carrying data from one host to another. It provides means to allocate logical addresses to hosts, and identify them uniquely using the same. Network layer takes data units from Transport Layer and cuts them in to smaller unit called Data Packet.

Network layer defines the data path, the packets should follow to reach the destination. Routers work on this layer and provides mechanism to route data to its destination. A majority of the internet uses a protocol suite called the Internet Protocol Suite also known as the TCP/IP protocol suite. This suite is a combination of protocols which encompasses a number of different protocols for different purpose and need. Because the two major protocols in this suites are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol), this is commonly termed as TCP/IP Protocol suite. This protocol suite has its own reference model which it follows over the internet. In contrast with the OSI model, this model of protocols contains less layers.

Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)

Internet Protocol is one of the major protocols in the TCP/IP protocols suite. This protocol works at the network layer of the OSI model and at the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model. Thus this protocol has the responsibility of identifying hosts based upon their logical addresses and to route data among them over the underlying network.

IP provides a mechanism to uniquely identify hosts by an IP scheme. IP uses best effort delivery, i.e. it does not guarantee that packets would be delivered to the destined host, but it will do its best to reach the destination. Internet Protocol version 4 uses 32-bit logical address.

Internet Protocol being a layer-3 protocol (OSI) takes data Segments from layer-4 (Transport) and divides it into packets. IP packet encapsulates data unit received from above layer and add to its own header information.

The encapsulated data is referred to as IP Payload. IP header contains all the necessary information to deliver the packet at the other end.

IP header includes many relevant information including Version Number, which, in this context, is 4. Other details are as follows:

  • Version: Version no. of Internet Protocol used (e.g. IPv4).
  • IHL: Internet Header Length; Length of entire IP header.
  • DSCP: Differentiated Services Code Point; this is Type of Service.
  • ECN: Explicit Congestion Notification; It carries information about the congestion seen in the route.
  • Total Length: Length of entire IP Packet (including IP header and IP Payload).
  • Identification: If IP packet is fragmented during the transmission, all the fragments contain same identification number. to identify original IP packet they belong to.
  • Flags: As required by the network resources, if IP Packet is too large to handle, these ‘flags’ tells if they can be fragmented or not. In this 3-bit flag, the MSB is always set to ‘0’.
  • Fragment Offset: This offset tells the exact position of the fragment in the original IP Packet.
  • Time to Live: To avoid looping in the network, every packet is sent with some TTL value set, which tells the network how many routers (hops) this packet can cross. At each hop, its value is decremented by one and when the value reaches zero, the packet is discarded.
  • Protocol: Tells the Network layer at the destination host, to which Protocol this packet belongs to, i.e. the next level Protocol. For example protocol number of ICMP is 1, TCP is 6 and UDP is 17.
  • Header Checksum: This field is used to keep checksum value of entire header which is then used to check if the packet is received error-free.
  • Source Address: 32-bit address of the Sender (or source) of the packet.
  • Destination Address: 32-bit address of the Receiver (or destination) of the packet.
  • Options: This is optional field, which is used if the value of IHL is greater than 5. These options may contain values for options such as Security, Record Route, Time Stamp, etc.

Internet Protocol hierarchy contains several classes of IP to be used efficiently in various situations as per the requirement of hosts per network. Broadly, the IPv4 system is divided into five classes of IP Addresses. All the five classes are identified by the first octet of IP.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is responsible for assigning IP.

The first octet referred here is the left most of all. The octets numbered as follows depicting dotted decimal notation of IP:

The number of networks and the number of hosts per class can be derived by this formula:

When calculating hosts’ IP, 2 IP are decreased because they cannot be assigned to hosts, i.e. the first IP of a network is network number and the last IP is reserved for Broadcast IP.

Class A Address

The first bit of the first octet is always set to 0 (zero). Thus the first octet ranges from 1 – 127, i.e.

Class A addresses only include IP starting from 1.x.x.x to 126.x.x.x only. The IP range 127.x.x.x is reserved for loopback IP addresses.

The default subnet mask for Class A IP address is which implies that Class A addressing can have 126 networks (27-2) and 16777214 hosts (224-2).

Class A IP address format is thus: 0NNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH

Class B Address

An IP address which belongs to class B has the first two bits in the first octet set to 10, i.e.

Class B IP range from 128.0.x.x to 191.255.x.x. The default subnet mask for Class B is 255.255.x.x.

Class B has 16384 (214) Network addresses and 65534 (216-2) Host addresses.


Class C Address

The first octet of Class C IP address has its first 3 bits set to 110, that is:

Class C IP range from 192.0.0.x to 223.255.255.x. The default subnet mask for Class C is 255.255.255.x.

Class C gives 2097152 (221) Network addresses and 254 (28-2) Host addresses.


Class D Address

Very first four bits of the first octet in Class D IP addresses are set to 1110, giving a range of:

Class D has IP rage from to Class D is reserved for Multicasting. In multicasting data is not destined for a particular host, that is why there is no need to extract host address from the IP address, and Class D does not have any subnet mask.

Class E Address

This IP Class is reserved for experimental purposes only for R&D or Study. IP addresses in this class ranges from to Like Class D, this class too is not equipped with any subnet mask.

Each IP class is equipped with its own default subnet mask which bounds that IP class to have prefixed number of Networks and prefixed number of Hosts per network. Classful IP does not provide any flexibility of having less number of Hosts per Network or more Networks per IP Class.

CIDR or Classless Inter Domain Routing provides the flexibility of borrowing bits of Host part of the IP and using them as Network in Network, called Subnet. By using subnetting, one single Class A IP address can be used to have smaller sub-networks which provides better network management capabilities.

Class A Subnets

In Class A, only the first octet is used as Network identifier and rest of three octets are used to be assigned to Hosts (i.e. 16777214 Hosts per Network). To make more subnet in Class A, bits from Host part are borrowed and the subnet mask is changed accordingly.

For example, if one MSB (Most Significant Bit) is borrowed from host bits of second octet and added to Network address, it creates two Subnets (21=2) with (223-2) 8388606 Hosts per Subnet.

The Subnet mask is changed accordingly to reflect subnetting. Given below is a list of all possible combination of Class A subnets:

In case of subnetting too, the very first and last IP of every subnet is used for Subnet Number and Subnet Broadcast IP respectively. Because these two IP addresses cannot be assigned to hosts, sub-netting cannot be implemented by using more than 30 bits as Network Bits, which provides less than two hosts per subnet.

Class B Subnets

By default, using Classful Networking, 14 bits are used as Network bits providing (214) 16384 Networks and (216-2) 65534 Hosts. Class B IP Addresses can be subnetted the same way as Class A addresses, by borrowing bits from Host bits. Below is given all possible combination of Class B subnetting:

Class C Subnets

Class C IP addresses are normally assigned to a very small size network because it can only have 254 hosts in a network. Given below is a list of all possible combination of subnetted Class B IP address:

Internet Service Providers may face a situation where they need to allocate IP subnets of different sizes as per the requirement of customer. One customer may ask Class C subnet of 3 IP addresses and another may ask for 10 IPs. For an ISP, it is not feasible to divide the IP addresses into fixed size subnets, rather he may want to subnet the subnets in such a way which results in minimum wastage of IP addresses.

For example, an administrator have network. The suffix /24 (pronounced as “slash 24”) tells the number of bits used for network address. In this example, the administrator has three different departments with different number of hosts. Sales department has 100 computers, Purchase department has 50 computers, Accounts has 25 computers and Management has 5 computers. In CIDR, the subnets are of fixed size. Using the same methodology the administrator cannot fulfill all the requirements of the network.

The following procedure shows how VLSM can be used in order to allocate department-wise IP addresses as mentioned in the example.

Step – 1

Make a list of Subnets possible.

Step – 2

Sort the requirements of IPs in descending order (Highest to Lowest).
• Sales 100
• Purchase 50
• Accounts 25
• Management 5

Step – 3

Allocate the highest range of IPs to the highest requirement, so let’s assign /25 ( to the Sales department. This IP subnet with Network number has 126 valid Host IP which satisfy the requirement of the Sales department. The subnet mask used for this subnet has 10000000 as the last octet.

Step – 4

Allocate the next highest range, so let’s assign /26 ( to the Purchase department. This IP subnet with Network number has 62 valid Host IP Addresses which can be easily assigned to all the PCs of the Purchase department. The subnet mask used has 11000000 in the last octet.

Step – 5

Allocate the next highest range, i.e. Accounts. The requirement of 25 IPs can be fulfilled with /27 ( IP subnet, which contains 30 valid host IPs. The network number of Accounts department will be The last octet of subnet mask is 11100000.

Step – 6

Allocate the next highest range to Management. The Management department contains only 5 computers. The subnet /29 with the Mask has exactly 6 valid host IP. So this can be assigned to Management. The last octet of the subnet mask will contain 11111000.

By using VLSM, the administrator can subnet the IP subnet in such a way that least number of IP are wasted. Even after assigning IPs to every department, the administrator, in this example, is still left with plenty of IP which was not possible if he has used CIDR.

There are a few reserved IPv4 address spaces which cannot be used on the internet. These addresses serve special purpose and cannot be routed outside the Local Area Network.

Private IP

Every class of IP, (A, B & C) has some addresses reserved as Private IP addresses. These IPs can be used within a network, campus, company and are private to it. These addresses cannot be routed on the Internet, so packets containing these private addresses are dropped by the Routers.

In order to communicate with the outside world, these IP addresses must have to be translated to some public IP using NAT process, or Web Proxy server can be used.

The sole purpose to create a separate range of private addresses is to control assignment of already-limited IPv4 address pool. By using a private address range within LAN, the requirement of IPv4 addresses has globally decreased significantly. It has also helped delaying the IPv4 address exhaustion.

IP class, while using private address range, can be chosen as per the size and requirement of the organization. Larger organizations may choose class A private IP address range where smaller organizations may opt for class C. These IP addresses can be further sub-netted and assigned to departments within an organization.

Loopback IP

The IP range – is reserved for loopback, i.e. a Host’s self-address, also known as localhost address. This loopback IP is managed entirely by and within the operating system. Loopback addresses, enable the Server and Client processes on a single system to communicate with each other. When a process creates a packet with destination address as loopback address, the operating system loops it back to itself without having any interference of NIC.

Data sent on loopback is forwarded by the operating system to a virtual network interface within operating system. This address is mostly used for testing purposes like client-server architecture on a single machine. Other than that, if a host machine can successfully ping or any IP from loopback range, implies that the TCP/IP software stack on the machine is successfully loaded and working.

Link-local Addresses

In case a host is not able to acquire an IP from the DHCP server and it has not been assigned any IP manually, the host can assign itself an IP address from a range of reserved Link-local addresses. Link local address ranges from —

Assume a network segment where all systems are configured to acquire IP from a DHCP server connected to the same network segment. If the DHCP server is not available, no host on the segment will be able to communicate to any other. Windows (98 or later), and Mac OS (8.0 or later) supports this functionality of self-configuration of Link-local IP. In absence of DHCP server, every host machine randomly chooses an IP from the above mentioned range and then checks to ascertain by means of ARP, if some other host also has not configured itself with the same IP. Once all hosts are using link local addresses of same range, they can communicate with each other.

Wireless Internet Service

Many individuals do not know how to answer the question of what wireless internet service is when being asked. Many understand its capabilities, but not its innovative capacity. The concept is simple to understand and easy to obtain for personal usage. The answer to the daunting question is simple. It is an aspect of internet that is of high-caliber and provides high speed web access from local networks.

The term is widely known as broadband. Broadband has been revolutionized by its kilo-bits that processes faster than a hardware-based internet connection. The service can download, upload, and complete other digital tasks without breaking a sweat. Broadband has been broken into different categories to help you understand its innovative capacity.

An individual will be able to increase or decrease the speed by choosing between the different connections. The connections are known as Tier and provide different ranges of kilo-bits. Through these small amps of speed and technology, broadband internet has managed to create an evolutionary world.

Many people continue their daily lives without understanding the process it takes to implement such a service. The latest and greatest design is the wireless connections. This wireless broadband service allows anyone to use the web without the need of having wires to be connected to your laptop. This allows for an increase of online users and consumers.

It helps increase productivity of the web. Now, anyone can connect to the web. Connection can be acquired from an office, school, friend’s home, mall or any other public area. A wireless network connection allows one to have full internet access to any network as long as it is within a close range to your device.

Your mobile device and broadband network contributes to the advantage. The service may only function properly with a techno-device. The device used can range from a cell phone to a netbook. The broadband service will easily communicate and gather data from a local connection and effectively distribute images and information through your device. This is known as Wi-Fi. Your coverage region can be broaden, it is based on your router or mobile phone’s capability.

Broadband packages are becoming well-known among individuals. It is especially popular with cell phones and laptop devices. Broadband includes many services, features, and functions. It is used in public areas or at home. Wi-Fi has quick connections, they are commonly referred to as HotSpots.

Another form of broadband is mobile broadband. There are several mobile and on-the-go applications that can be used. Mobile devices can include a iPad, iPod, laptop, netbook, cell phone, headsets, and other adaptable devices. Many individuals may have to purchase the wireless internet service in order to start surfing peacefully, but that would be another area of concern.

Satellite Internet Service

When you are going to be looking for a great way to stay in touch with people, you need to realize that one of those could be on the internet. However, some people are going to run into the issue of not being able to connect to the internet from their home since they live so far away from this type of service. To deal with that problem, you will want to know about the benefits of using a satellite internet service.

When you are looking at these services, you need to check the costs. Some of those cost are going to be for installing the software that you need, but some of them will be the monthly cost. So make sure that the cost is going to be low enough that you can afford it.

When you are getting this type of service, you will want to find out if you are going to have to cut down any trees. That might mean that you will run into the problem of having to hire a tree service to correct that problem. However, at the same time, you are going to want to consider the benefits of what you will be getting by using this service.

One benefit of using this is you can get the internet even if you live away from the normal providers. Being able to get the internet no matter where you live is going to be a great thing to experience.

Another benefit is that you are not going to have to worry about the wires going down. Wires can be blown down by the wind or get too heavy and break with the weight of snow or ice. With this type of service though, you are not going to have to worry about the wires being damaged other than if you are depending on electric wires to provide you with electricity.

Something else that you will want to consider is that you are going to have a great signal. The signal can be spotty at times when you are using a wire based system because water or ice could get into the lines causing a short. However, with these you are not going to have that problem because many times you will find the signal strength will be strong even in the worst of the rain storms.

The speed of these is usually faster than what you normally get. Many times you will find that since your going to be one of the few people drawing off of the resource your speed is going to be faster than what your used to experiencing. So you will be able to have the items that you want to look at loaded faster than what you thought you would ever see.

Being able to have the ability to communicate with people no matter where you are is going to be a great thing. However, the problem is that many people are not going to know the benefits of using a satellite internet service to get that constant ability to communicate.

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Do Not Pay for High Speed Local Internet Speeds You Will Never Use

I have been watching all the commercial on TV for fast Internet service. All of the companies have a hook. I like the one that shows a family in a nice new modern house with all white furniture and carpeting. They are sitting around in their brand name clothes using the latest electronics watching videos and playing games. The ad implies how happy they are to have their new super fast Internet service. Well, my wife and kids along with me have a local Internet service that is a lot cheaper and just as effective.

We do not have white furniture and carpeting, and we buy a lot of our clothes from department stores. However, we do need fast Internet service. The kids are really into photography, videography and other things that take up a lot of bandwidth. I access and download large data files from work when I am telecommuting. None of us has any problems with our local Internet service speeds. Continue reading “Do Not Pay for High Speed Local Internet Speeds You Will Never Use”

Understanding the Share Market And Effectivity of Share Tips

Share market is a place where fortune is made and demolished everyday. Some may gain their fortune and some other may loose to depths. This market is about numbers and figures. Being a virtual space to trade stocks of various companies, it has gathered huge attention of many in recent times.
Share market is a place where fortune is made and demolished everyday. Some may gain their fortune and some other may loose to depths. This market is about numbers and figures. Being a virtual space to trade stocks of various companies, it has gathered huge attention of many in recent times.

To start trading on a share market you need a platform along with a trading account from various banks. This platform is provided by many share brokers or agents. Shares of various companies are sold and purchased on daily basis by individuals, companies or groups. While talking about shares, these are basic units of company stock value, which any listed company can put-forth for common people to share upon. A listed company is a company that has been enrolled to sell or purchase its stocks over an open common platform (Stock Market).

Although share market is not a new concept, the operations of share market have seen enormous technological advancements. With introduction of interment and personalized gadgets like cell phones share trading has witnessed dramatic shifts. It’s now possible from your desk to trade upon shares with an interface.

By nature, share market is extremely volatile. With abundance of purchases and sales every minute, the market value of shares keeps on changing gradients. For many, share market is a fortune maker. The diversity and volatile nature of shares accounts for big returns on investments.

For many amateur and newcomer share market poses extreme risk. Without basic understanding of shares, different terminology associated with share trading and share performance; any person can be fooled to loose his investments. Share Market is about investments and disinvestments. To be a successful trader you need to earn profit with buying and selling of shares on a regular basis. Share Markets are fortune makers many a times. With your proficiency in trading shares can develop your fortune over short span of time. The basics are just to understand the favoring trends. By operating in a trendy fashion you win the game to earn your profit.

Nowadays there are plenty of opportunities available for individuals to go for share trading. People are encouraged to make their presence on this glossy platform. But, understanding the basics are still out of scope for many. With advancement of technology, you have abundance of resources for gathering the concepts of share trading. Information spreading over World Wide Web are huge. All you need is some intrinsic research to prove your competency.

Being an amateur share trader you may associate yourself with any broking firm. You might ask for tips from experts. The expert advices and share tips can guide you in a better way for trading profit on your shares. Many magnificent web portals are available online for meager sum of membership fees. They make you understand the basicsBusiness Management Articles, make you to practice over a virtual mock stock exchange and offer you practically effective share tips to help you out to earn handsome. After all when you earn profit the broker firms gain their commission as profit. With some research online you can always find someone reliable to help you out!

Metabolomics Market Value Share, Supply Demand, share and Value Chain 2016-2020

North America held 40% share in global market and dominated the metabolomics market in 2015.This region remains competitive with the presence of a large number of vendors. Europe was the second largest market with over 30% share of the total share in the same year. Asia Pacific is expected to witness rapid growth in the years to come.
Zion Research has published a new report titled “Metabolomics Market by Technology (Mass Spectrometry, Capillary Electrophoresis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy), Indication (Cardiology and Oncology) for Drug Discovery, Biomarker and Nutrigenomics : Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 – 2021”. According to the report, the global demand for metabolomics was valued at over USD 675.0 million in 2015 and it is expected to reach above USD 2,500.0 million in 2021, growing at a CAGR of above 25.0% between 2016 and 2021.

Metabolites are substances or compounds found in the cell, they are intermediate products catalyzed by enzymes in the metabolism process. Signaling molecules, hormones, metabolic intermediates and secondary metabolites are some of the types of metabolites. Metabolism is the process to maintain living state of cell. Metabolism can be either anabolism or catabolism. Anabolism is the process in which certain compounds are synthesized that is required for cells to process, while breakdown of molecules for releasing energy is the catabolism. Metabolome is total set of metabolites present in a single organism. Metabolomics is study of chemical reactions related to metabolites and a field of analytical biochemistry. Metabolomics is used to compute and recognize the metabolites present in the cell via analytical technologies together with multi variant and statistical method for data interpretation.

Browse the full “Metabolomics Market by Technology (Mass Spectrometry, Capillary Electrophoresis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy), Indication (Cardiology and Oncology) for Drug Discovery, Biomarker and Nutrigenomics: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Segment, Trends and Forecast, 2015 – 2021”

Increasing scope of toxicological studies, clinical trials, rise in awareness for health and government and institution funds for research is expected to drive the demand for the metabolomics market. Lack of adoption of metabolomics technology and complexity of the process can hamper the metabolomics market. Increasing research and development expenditure and existing demand from emerging economies and is likely to open new market avenues in the near future.

The metabolomics market is segmented on the basis of technology, indication, application and region. Mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are some of the major segments based on technology. High performance liquid chromatography was largest technology segment for metabolomics market. Drug discovery, biomarker and nutrigenomics are some of the key application markets for metabolomics. Drug discovery emerged as dominating segment due to its significant role in optimization, prioritization and drug target validation and identification for research. Cardiology and oncology are the indication for metabolomics.

Key players in global metabolomics market include Danaher Corporation, Bruker Corporation, Waters Corporation, Metabolon, Inc., Agilent Technologies, Thermo Fisher Scientific and Shimadzu Corporation among others.

Calculating Net Asset Value

Net asset value or NAV is a most common term used to describe the value of a mutual fund. But, many mutual fund investors do not exactly understand the real meaning of the term. However, before investing in a mutual fund, it is very important to know the way in which a mutual fund’s NAV is calculated.

Calculating the net asset value of a mutual fund is really simple. When the current market value of the fund’s net assets on that particular day are divided by the number of outstanding shares, the resultant value is the NAV. The total net assets of a mutual fund include all the securities held by the fund minus any liabilities. Net asset value per share has to be calculated daily. Illustrated below is a simple example to understand the NAV calculation. If the total value of assets in a fund is equal to $5 million and the fund has one million shares in the portfolio, then the NAV or the price per each share is $50.00. Net asset value can also be simply described as the price at which shares may be purchased or sold at a particular time.

According to financial experts, NAV is never a right index to judge the performance of a mutual fund. This is because the NAV is highly influenced by the fund distributions made by the fund manager. As per law, every mutual fund has to distribute its realized net gains to the investors in the form of dividends. Whenever any dividend is distributed, the value of the NAV declines on a per-share basis. In many cases, investors prefer to reinvest the dividends or fund distributions rather than receiving cash. As a result of this option, investors can obtain additional shares using those distributions. And also, there would be no decrease in the total value of the fund investment, even though the NAV declines.

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Net Meeting Tutorial

Net Meeting Tutorial provides all the necessary information on Net Meeting, which is a real time conferencing tool using Internet. Chat, file transfer, whiteboard, video and audio conferencing, program sharing, remote desktop sharing and advance calling are some of the important features. Pentium processor of 90 MHz or higher, 16 MB RAM, Internet Explorer 4.01 or later, 28,800 bps or faster modem, sound and video card and PC camera are the minimum requirements.

Net Meeting can be downloaded from Microsoft site or from other providers. Windows XP and 2000 has Net Meeting along with it. Once you download, the first screen gives introduction and the next screen asks for relevant personal information. The next dialog box allows you to enter directory server. The next few dialog boxes allow you to adapt your PC for the software requirements and checks your video and audio cards and other settings.

Once Net Meeting is installed you can call a person if the person is online. To place a call, click the telephone button. To know whether a contact is in the same directory; type the person’s e-mail address. If your contact is in the same directory, the person will be listed in the directory. Once the contact is in the same directory, you can invite the person for chat. For this you need to click the chat button and can send messages from the dialog box. When you click chat, audio conferencing facility will automatically start to function if the necessary equipments are in place. If you have camera, click star video button to transfer images. The audio and screen size can be adjusted. Through “options” under “tools,” you can adjust the other settings. By clicking “source” button, you can adjust camera settings. Using whiteboard, you can draw lines, add color, edit text and save for future sessions.

To share an application all the users needs a copy of the application program installed. Click “sharing” and pop-up window will show the files in use and you can select the file for sharing. For file transfer, after clicking on “file transfer,” you will get a pop-up with “add files” option. You can select the files you want to transfer and can send to any number of contacts.

How To Use Net Meeting

The first step to use Net Meeting is to download and install Net Meeting from Microsoft or the other providers. Net Meeting is included in Windows 2000. Those using Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, and Windows NT 4.0 needs to download it.

Once you have installed Net Meeting you can start chatting or transferring files with added contacts. If you do not have contacts you can call someone. Microsoft Internet Diary, which has Internet Locator Server (ILS), is the ideal choice to find friends. To find an address in the directory, first click “find someone in a directory.” In the select a “directory field” you can select the directory you like. Then, you can provide information about the person you want to call. It can be the person’s name, e-mail address or location. Once you have submitted this information, it will display contents matching your needs. The history list is another option to invite people. It contains information about people who have invited you earlier.

To begin chatting in Net Meeting click chat button. In “message,” enter the message you want to send. Then select the person whom you want to send message from your added contacts. If you want to send to all your added contacts click all names. After this, click the send message button. If you want to receive video, call someone from your list whose video you want to see. Then go to “tools” and point on “video” and click “receive.” If you want to share your image, call someone and click “start video” in the “tools” menu. Similarly, to send video you can click the “tools” menu and point to “video” and click on “send.” Once the video has started the button transforms to “stop video.” To stop click on it.

For file transfer, click “transfer files.” On “file transfer” dialog box click “add file” and select the file you want to send. The next process is similar to chat. Click on the person or persons you want to send file. Click on the “send file” once you have made your selection. To share files, click the “share program” button and in the “sharing” dialog box select the program you want to share.

Health Insurance Money Saving Strategies – How Combining Health Insurance Saves Money

How does anyone get the best value with health insurance? Answer: Combine Health Insurance Plans. To explore the principles at work, many people should understand how combining health insurance is a sound solution to a serious problem. It may appear obvious that combining insurance improves coverage, but few people truly understand how combining plans leads to thousands of dollars in potential savings over time. With so many health insurance plans available and over 1 million insurance agents actively licensed today, it leads one to question why no one knows how combining plans saves money.

Today, too many people are learning the hard way that they are under-insured when it comes to health insurance. This happens because competitive health insurance agents bid lower and lower amounts in an inflated market, leading to more gaps in coverage that less experienced agents often fail to comprehend well enough to explain. There is a simple truth to understand about the rising costs of health care.

Health Care Costs Will Continue to Rise When No Regulation is in Place conducted research on hospital charges nationwide. These charges were compared to those of Johns Hopkins Hospitals, one of the most respected health care institutions in the nation. What were the results?

The vast majority of hospital charges average between 300% and 400% above the institutions’ costs for treatment. Johns Hopkins Hospital’s average charges are 117% above its costs. For every $1 charged, Johns Hopkins pays $0.85, or earns a profit of $0.25 for every dollar charged.

The average U.S. hospital pays $0.27 for every dollar it charges. The average hospital is paying $25 Million in costs while charging $95 Million to patients. The average profit margin is around $70 Million annually. The greatest of these charges are credited to surgical supplies and the administration of anesthesia.

In an ever-inflating health care industry, a solution does exist. While politicians continue making promises to solve the health care crisis, individuals and families continue to expect more than the insurance market can bear. But many self-employed individuals and families can find comfort in knowing they can do something to secure assets by simply doing the legwork and becoming informed about health insurance.

The solution is based on a very simple principle of insurance. Insurance is an Agreement to Share the Financial Risk of Loss Between Individuals and Companies

This basic concept is more important for individuals to understand now than ever. Health insurance companies, like individuals, cannot afford the rising costs of health care on their own today. Many health insurance companies have developed their focus to specific areas where they can offer more competitive coverage at very affordable prices. This is where people can save significant amounts of money by adjusting to this trend. It is no longer the case that a single health plan can offer full, comprehensive coverage at a competitive price because health care costs are out of control.

Today it takes multiple health plans from multiple health insurance companies to have the best coverage at the lowest price. This follows the trends associated with investing in the economy. One creates greater risk for their financial performance in the market by investing all funds in one stock or trade. The safest, most secure investment is a diversified portfolio. Health insurance is no different today.

Why You Do Not Know

Is it surprising to learn that many insurance professionals have no idea how to give individuals and families the best coverage and the greatest savings on health insurance? The majority of health insurance agents today are captive to one company. This means that most insurance agents are only trained to present the products of the health insurance company they represent.

Independent agents are less restricted to one plan, but a large number of these professionals still have limited access to the competitive plans available to individuals and families. While this explanation is complicated, the simple answer is that most agencies earn the majority of their profits from the volume of product sales per company, not the volume of sales overall. Some general agency contracts offer higher incentives to the agency, which can influence what products agencies offer.

So, it comes down to the individual shopping for health insurance to find the policies that create the greatest coverage and savings.

A Well-Structured Health Insurance Portfolio is the Key to Having the Best Coverage for the Lowest Price

Combining health insurance plans is the best way to improve coverage save money on health insurance long term. Health Insurance Money Saving Strategies is a 10-week campaign to spread the word to self-employed individuals and their families looking for private health insurance. A well-structured Health Insurance Portfolio is the best way for people to protect their assets and be comfortable knowing their insurance adequately protects them from the worst medical situations. The benefit is knowing that this type of approach to health insurance saves people money.